If you are writing the literature review section of a dissertation or research To begin organizing your literature review's argument and structure, you need show how your own research will contribute to existing knowledge. As you write the Ph.D. engineering literature review, ensure you follow sort out literature that has a major contribution to your research; and finally, Structure your engineering lit review well; ensure logical flow of ideas. The focus of the Study Guide is the literature review within a dissertation or a thesis, but many of .. Examples of ways you might structure your literature review are: . Is there any material that is interesting but which does not contribute to the.
literature review structure its and contribution the phd
The unit of analysis can focus on a theoretical concept or a whole theory or framework. Baumeister, Roy F. Sage Publications, ; Kennedy, Mary M. Systematic Reviews in the Social Sciences: A Practical Guide.
Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers, ; Torracro, Richard. Guidelines and Examples. Terms, Functions, and Distinctions.
Systematic Approaches to a Successful Literature Review. Sage Publications, Thinking About Your Literature Review. The structure of a literature review should include the following: The critical evaluation of each work should consider: Development of the Literature Review. Four Stages 1. Problem formulation -- which topic or field is being examined and what are its component issues?
Literature search -- finding materials relevant to the subject being explored. Data evaluation -- determining which literature makes a significant contribution to the understanding of the topic.
Analysis and interpretation -- discussing the findings and conclusions of pertinent literature. Consider the following issues before writing the literature review: Clarify If your assignment is not very specific about what form your literature review should take, seek clarification from your professor by asking these questions: Roughly how many sources should I include?
What types of sources should I review books, journal articles, websites; scholarly versus popular sources? Should I summarize, synthesize, or critique sources by discussing a common theme or issue?
Should I evaluate the sources? Find Models Use the exercise of reviewing the literature to examine how authors in your discipline or area of interest have composed their literature review sections. Read them to get a sense of the types of themes you might want to look for in your own research or to identify ways to organize your final review. The bibliography or reference section of sources you've already read are also excellent entry points into your own research.
Narrow the Topic The narrower your topic, the easier it will be to limit the number of sources you need to read in order to obtain a good survey of relevant resources. Your professor will probably not expect you to read everything that's available about the topic, but you'll make your job easier if you first limit scope of the research problem.
A good strategy is to begin by searching the HOMER catalog for books about the topic and review the table of contents for chapters that focuses on specific issues. You can also review the indexes of books to find references to specific issues that can serve as the focus of your research. For example, a book surveying the history of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict may include a chapter on the role Egypt has played in mediating the conflict, or look in the index for the pages where Egypt is mentioned in the text.
Consider Whether Your Sources are Current Some disciplines require that you use information that is as current as possible. This is particularly true in disciplines in medicine and the sciences where research conducted becomes obsolete very quickly as new discoveries are made.
However, when writing a review in the social sciences, a survey of the history of the literature may be required. In other words, a complete understanding the research problem requires you to deliberately examine how knowledge and perspectives have changed over time. Sort through other current bibliographies or literature reviews in the field to get a sense of what your discipline expects. You can also use this method to explore what is considered by scholars to be a "hot topic" and what is not.
Ways to Organize Your Literature Review. Chronology of Events If your review follows the chronological method, you could write about the materials according to when they were published. This approach should only be followed if a clear path of research building on previous research can be identified and that these trends follow a clear chronological order of development.
For example, a literature review that focuses on continuing research about the emergence of German economic power after the fall of the Soviet Union. By Publication Order your sources by publication chronology, then, only if the order demonstrates a more important trend. However, progression of time may still be an important factor in a thematic review. The only difference here between a "chronological" and a "thematic" approach is what is emphasized the most: Note however that more authentic thematic reviews tend to break away from chronological order.
A review organized in this manner would shift between time periods within each section according to the point made.
Methodological A methodological approach focuses on the methods utilized by the researcher. For the Internet in American presidential politics project, one methodological approach would be to look at cultural differences between the portrayal of American presidents on American, British, and French websites.
Or the review might focus on the fundraising impact of the Internet on a particular political party. A methodological scope will influence either the types of documents in the review or the way in which these documents are discussed. Other Sections of Your Literature Review Once you've decided on the organizational method for your literature review, the sections you need to include in the paper should be easy to figure out because they arise from your organizational strategy.
In other words, a chronological review would have subsections for each vital time period; a thematic review would have subtopics based upon factors that relate to the theme or issue. However, sometimes you may need to add additional sections that are necessary for your study, but do not fit in the organizational strategy of the body. What other sections you include in the body is up to you but include only what is necessary for the reader to locate your study within the larger scholarship framework.
Here are examples of other sections you may need to include depending on the type of review you write: Writing Your Literature Review. Once you've settled on how to organize your literature review, you're ready to write each section.
When writing your review, keep in mind these issues. Use Evidence A literature review section is, in this sense, just like any other academic research paper. Your interpretation of the available sources must be backed up with evidence [citations] that demonstrates that what you are saying is valid. Be Selective Select only the most important points in each source to highlight in the review.
The type of information you choose to mention should relate directly to the research problem, whether it is thematic, methodological, or chronological. Related items that provide additional information but that are not key to understanding the research problem can be included in a list of further readings.
Use Quotes Sparingly Some short quotes are okay if you want to emphasize a point, or if what an author stated cannot be easily paraphrased.
Sometimes you may need to quote certain terminology that was coined by the author, not common knowledge, or taken directly from the study. Do not use extensive quotes as a substitute for your own summary and interpretation of the literature. Summarize and Synthesize Remember to summarize and synthesize your sources within each thematic paragraph as well as throughout the review.
Recapitulate important features of a research study, but then synthesize it by rephrasing the study's significance and relating it to your own work. Keep Your Own Voice While the literature review presents others' ideas, your voice [the writer's] should remain front and center.
A meta-analysis is typically a systematic review using statistical methods to effectively combine the data used on all selected studies to produce a more reliable result. Shields and Rangarajan distinguish between the process of reviewing the literature and a finished work or product known as a literature review.
The process of reviewing the literature requires different kinds of activities and ways of thinking. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For a focused scientific review with pre-defined methodology, see Systematic review.
For the British magazine, see Literary Review. For the American magazine, see The Literary Review. This article needs attention from an expert on the subject. Please add a reason or a talk parameter to this template to explain the issue with the article. When placing this tag, consider associating this request with a WikiProject. May Doing a Literature Review: Releasing the Research Imagination. Writing a Research Paper in Political Science. Thousand Oaks, California: CQ Press.
What was I even writing about, and how did it differ from all the other literature reviews? I started wondering how I could make my literature review interesting what a concept. I would be more motivated to write it, and my colleagues could read through it without falling asleep. So, when my supervisor asked me to see him a few days later, I was prepared to re-write my literature review. If you enjoy the process, your readers will thank you too. Even the best writers struggle to communicate their ideas, and rely heavily on the revision process to polish their work.
Imagine that good writing is like building a house: Write your paper the same way: The tough part is transitioning from reading and researching for your literature review to actually writing it. Something you jot down in the early stages of collecting articles might even make it into your final paper. Or, that you need to write a literature review that encompasses every aspect of the literature on your topic.
Literature Review. General Do you have something unique to contribute to your field? Are you The structure of your dissertation may be different than other. The literature review becomes your springboard for the whole thesis. . A literature review is a must before writing a research paper/ PhD Thesis/ any research In line with what dear Dr. Yogesh stated in his good contribution, published Literature review discloses appropriate theoretical structure of the study that helps. Q: What is a literature review? Stated most What are the current theoretical or policy issues and debates related to your topic? 2. Q: Why do a review of the literature? 1. how the proposed research will contribute to the conversation.