Use your knowledge of algebra to solve this chemistry equation. As human Three of the following strategies illustrate the use of metacognitive processes in problem solving. Which strategy is Creativity often involves divergent thinking. Apr 29, On the other hand, divergent thinking was equated with creativity and both Divergence is typically signified by the capacity to produce many, or a greater Convergent thinking is a problem solving technique involving the. Divergent thinking is a thought process or method used to generate creative ideas by exploring many possible solutions. It is often used in conjunction with its cognitive colleague, convergent thinking, which follows a particular set of logical steps to arrive at one solution, which in some cases is a "correct" solution. parallel between "their findings and creative.
solving thinking typically involves divergent problem creative
Creativity makes use of divergent thinking , which is solving problems with many possible solutions, as opposed to convergent thinking , which is solving problems with a single, correct answer. Sternberg argued that creativity requires three types of intelligence, which are synthetic, analytical, and practical. Brainstorming is a common technique to help people begin the creative process. To unlock this lesson you must be a Study.
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The videos on Study. Sign Up. Explore over 4, video courses. Find a degree that fits your goals. Cognitive Thinking: This lesson covers the definition of creativity and discusses how creativity requires several different types of thinking, including divergent thinking and synthetic, analytic, and practical intelligence. This lesson also defines and describes brainstorming. Try it risk-free for 30 days.
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Creative problem solving processes often involve an interactive relationship between imagining, sketching, and evaluating the result of the sketch van Leeuwen et al. The originality of inventions is predicted by the application of visualization, whereas their practicality is predicted by the vividness of imagery Palmiero et al.
Imaginative thought processes emerge from our conceptual knowledge of the world that is represented in our semantic memory system. In constrained divergent thinking, the neural correlates of this semantic memory system partially overlap with those of the creative cognition system Abraham and Bubic, Studies of convergent and divergent thinking abilities have yielded innumerable valuable insights on the cognitive and neurological aspects involved, e.
However, to arrive at a quality formulation the creative process cannot do without the application of both, convergent and divergent thinking abilities e. When it is our aim to study the networks addressed by the intertwining of convergent and divergent thinking processes that are considered to operate when new, original, and yet appropriate solutions are generated, then traditional thinking tests like intelligence tests and creativity tests are not appropriate; they yield processes related to the definition of one or the other type of construct.
According to the new insights gained in cognition research, we need tasks that are developed with the aim to instigate precisely the kind of thinking processes we are looking for. Tasks should also provide a method of scoring independently the contribution of convergent and divergent thinking.
The created matrix can, in principle, be solved by another person. The creation of components is entirely free, as is the generation of the relationships that connects them into a completed pattern.
Created matrices are scored with two sub scores; Relations , which scores the logical complexity of a matrix and is, therefore, considered a measure for convergent thinking, and Components and Specifications , which scores the originality, fluency, and flexibility and, therefore, is considered an indication for divergent thinking for a more detailed description of the score method, see Appendix 1 in Supplementary Material.
Psychometric studies with the CRT showed, firstly, that convergent and divergent thinking abilities apply within this task and can be assessed independently. Studies further showed that, although a correlation was observed for the intelligence and creativity test scores, no correlation was observed between the CRT sub scores relating to intelligent and creative performances Jaarsveld et al.
Jung describes a dichotomy for cognitive abilities with at one end the dedicated system that relies on explicit and conscious knowledge and at the other end the improvisational system that relies more upon implicit or unconscious knowledge systems. The interaction between explicit and implicit systems can be seen to form the basis of creative reasoning, i. This interaction evolved as a cognitive mechanism when human survival depended on finding effective solutions to both common and novel problem situations Gabora and Kaufman, Creative reasoning solves that minority of problems that are unforeseen and yet of high adaptability Jung, Hence, common tests are insufficient when it comes to solving problems that are unforeseen and yet of high adaptability, because they present problems that are either unforeseen and measure certain abilities contained in the construct of creativity or they address adaptability and measure certain abilities contained in the construct of intelligence.
The CRT presents participants with a problem that they could not have foreseen; the form is blank and offers no stimuli. All tests, even creativity tests, present participants with some kind of stimuli. The CRT addresses adaptability; to invent from scratch a coherent structure that can be solved by another person, like creating a crossword puzzle.
Problems, that are unforeseen and of high adaptability, are solved by the application of abilities from both constructs. Studies in neuroscience showed that cognition operating in ill-defined problem space not only applies divergent thinking but also benefits from additional convergent operations Gabora, ; Jung, Understanding creative cognition may be advanced when we study the flow of information among brain areas Jung et al.
In a cognitive neuroscience study with the CRT we focused on the cognitive process evolving within this task. EEG alpha synchronization in frontal areas is understood as an indication of top-down control Cooper et al.
When observed in frontal areas, for divergent and convergent thinking tasks, it may not reflect a brain state that is specific for creative cognition but could be attributed to the high processing demands typically involved in creative thinking Benedek et al. Top-down control, relates to volitionally focusing attention to task demands Buschman and Miller, That this control plays a role in tasks with an ill-defined problem space showed when electroencephalography EEG alpha synchronization was stronger for individuals engaged in creative ideation tasks compared to an intelligence related tasks Fink et al.
This activation was also found for the CRT; task related alpha synchronization showed that convergent thinking was integrated in the divergent thinking processes. Analyzes of the stages in the CRT process showed that this alpha synchronization was especially visible at the start of the creative process at prefrontal and frontal sites when information processing was most demanding, i.
A functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI study Beaty et al. The default mode network which drives toward abstraction and metaphorical thinking and the executive control network driving toward certainty Jung, Control involves not only maintenance of patterns of activity that represent goals and the means to achieve those Miller and Cohen, , but also their voluntary suppression when no longer needed, as well as the flexible shift between different goals and mental sets Abraham and Windmann, Attention can be focused volitionally by top-down signals derived from task demands and automatically by bottom-up signals from salient stimuli Buschman and Miller, Intertwining between top-down and bottom-up attention processes in creative cognition ensures a broadening of attention in free associative thinking Abraham and Windmann, These studies support and enhance the findings of creative cognition research in showing that the generation of original and applicable ideas involves an intertwining between different abilities, networks, and attention processes.
A problem space is an abstract representation, in the mind of the problem solver, of the encountered problem and of the asked for solution Simon and Newell, ; Simon, ; Hayes and Flowers, ; Kulkarni and Simon, ; Runco, The space that comes with a certain problem can, according to the constraints that are formulated for the solution, be labeled well-defined or ill-defined Simon and Newell, A problem space contains all possible states that are accessible to the problem solver from the initial state , through iterative application of transformation rules , to the goal state Newell and Simon, ; Anderson, The initial state presents the problem solver with a task description that defines which requirements a solution has to answer.
The goal state represents the solution. The proposed solution is a product of the application of transformation rules algorithms and heuristics on a series of successive intermediate solutions.
The proposed solution is also a product of the iterative evaluations of preceding solutions and decisions based upon these evaluations Boden, ; Gabora, ; Jaarsveld and van Leeuwen, ; Goldschmidt, Whether all possible states need to be passed through depends on the problem space being well or ill-defined and this, in turn, depends on the character of the task descriptions. When task descriptions clearly state which requirements a solution has to answer then the inferences made will show little idiosyncratic aspects and will adhere to the task constraints.
As a result, fewer options for alternative paths are open to the problem solver and search for a solution evolves in a well-defined space.
Tasks that evolve in defined problem space are, e. The above tests consist of different types of questions, each testing a different component of intelligence. They are used in test practice to assess reasoning abilities in diverse domains, such as, abstract, logical, spatial, verbal, numerical, and mathematical domains.
These tests have clearly stated task descriptions and each item has one and only one correct solution that has to be generated from memory or chosen from a set of alternatives, like in multiple choice formats.
Tests can be constructed to assess crystallized or fluid intelligence. Crystallized intelligence represents abilities acquired through learning, practice, and exposure to education, while fluid intelligence represents a more basic capacity that is valuable to reasoning and problem solving in contexts not necessarily related to school education Carroll, Tasks that evolve in ill-defined problem space are, e.
These types of test ask for a multitude of ideas to be generated in association with a given item or situation e. Therefore, they are also labeled as divergent thinking test. Although they assess originality, fluency, flexibility of responses, and elaboration, they are not constructed, however, to score appropriateness or applicability.
Divergent thinking tests assess one limited aspect of what makes an individual creative. More precisely, divergent thinking explains just under half of the variance in adult creative potential, which is more than three times that of the contribution of intelligence Plucker, , p.
Creative achievement , by contrast, is commonly assessed by means of self-reports such as biographical questionnaires in which participants indicate their achievement across various domains e. Studies with the CRT showed that problem space differently affects processing of and comprehension of relationships between components.
Problem space did not affect the ability to process complex information. This ability showed equal performance in well and ill-defined problem spaces Jaarsveld et al. However, problem space did affect the comprehension of relationships, which showed in the different frequencies of relationships solved and created Jaarsveld et al. Problem space further affected trends over grade levels of primary school children for relationships solved in well-defined and applied in ill-defined problem space.
Only one of the 12 relationships defined in the CRT, namely Combination, showed an increase with grade for both types of problem spaces Jaarsveld et al. In the same study, cognitive development in the CRT showed in the shifts of preference for a certain relationship. A sub category of problems with an ill-defined problem space are represented by design problems. In contrast to divergent thinking tasks that ask for the generation of a multitude of ideas, in design tasks interim ideas are nurtured and incrementally developed until they are appropriate for the task.
Ideas are rarely discarded and replaced with new ideas Goel and Pirolli, The CRT could be considered a design problem because it yields a one possible solution and b an iterative thinking process that involves the realization of a vague initial idea. In the CRT a created matrix, which is a closed problem, is created within an ill-defined problem space.
Design problems can be found, e. These complex problems are partly determined by unalterable needs, requirements and intentions but the major part of the design problem is undetermined Dorst, This author points out that besides containing an original and a functional value, these types of problems contain an aesthetic value.
He further states that the interpretation of the design problem and the creation and selection of possible suitable solutions can only be decided during the design process on the basis of proposals made by the designer.
In design problems the generation stage may be considered a divergent thinking process. However, not in the sense that it moves in multiple directions or generates multiple possibilities as in a divergent thinking tests, but in the sense that it unrolls by considering an initially vague idea from different perspectives until it comes into focus and requires further processing to become viable.
These processes can be characterized by a set of invariant features Goel and Pirolli, , e. Structuring of the initial situation is required in design processes before solving can commence. The problem contains little structured and clear information about its initial state and about the requirements of its solution. Therefore, design problems allow or even require re-interpretation of transformation rules; for instance, rearranging the location of furniture in a room according to a set of desirable outcomes.
A second aspect of design processes is their iterative character. After structuring and planning a vague idea emerges, which is the result of the merging of memory items. A vague idea is a cognitive structure that, halfway the creative process is still ill defined and, therefore, can be said to exist in a state of potentiality Gabora and Saab, Design processes unroll in an iterative way by the inspection and adjustment of the generated ideas Goldschmidt, A third aspect of design processes is coherence.
Coherence theories characterize coherence in, for instance, philosophical problems and psychological processes, in terms of maximal satisfaction of multiple constraints and compute coherence by using, a. Another measure of coherence is characterized as continuity in design processes. This measure was developed for a design task Jaarsveld and van Leeuwen, and calculated by the occurrence of a given pair of objects in a sketch, expressed as a percentage of all the sketches of a series.
In a series of sketches participants designed a logo for a new soft drink. Design series strong in coherence also received a high score for their final design, as assessed by professionals in various domains. Indicating that participants with a high score for the creative quality of their final sketch seemed better in assessing their design activity in relation to the continuity in the process and, thereby, seemed better in navigating the ill-defined space of a design problem Jaarsveld and van Leeuwen, Hence, design problems are especially suited to study more complex problem solving processes.
Knowledge domain represents disciplines or fields of study organized by general principles, e. It contains accumulated knowledge that can be divided in diverse content domains, and the relevant algorithms and heuristics. We also speak of knowledge domains when referring to, e. This latter differentiation may refer to the method by which performance in a certain knowledge domain is assessed, e.
In comparing tests results, we should keep in mind that apart from reflecting cognitive processes evolving in different problem spaces, the results also arise from cognition operating on different knowledge domains. We argue that, the still contradictory and inconclusive discussion about the relationship between intelligence and creativity Silvia, , should involve the issue of knowledge domain. Intelligence tests contain items that pertain to, e. Items of creativity tests, by contrast, pertain to more idiosyncratic knowledge domains, their contents relating to associations between stored personal experiences Karmiloff-Smith, The influence of knowledge domain on the relationships between different test scores was already mentioned by Guilford , p.
This author expected a higher correlation between scores from a typical intelligence test and a divergent thinking test than between scores from two divergent thinking tests because the former pair operated on identical information and the latter pair on different information. Studies with the CRT showed that when knowledge domain is controlled for, the development of intelligence operating in ill-defined problem space does not compare to that of traditional intelligence but develops more similarly to the development of creativity Welter et al.
The Threshold theory Guilford, predicts a relationship between intelligence and creativity up to approximately an intelligence quotient IQ level of but not beyond Lubart, ; Runco, Threshold theory was corroborated when creative potential was found to be related to intelligence up to certain IQ levels; however, the theory was refuted, when focusing on achievement in creative domains; it showed that creative achievement benefited from higher intelligence even at fairly high levels of intellectual ability Jauk et al.
Distinguishing between subtypes of general intelligence known as fluent and crystallized intelligence Cattell, , Sligh et al. Also creative achievement showed to be affected by fluid intelligence Beaty et al. Intelligence, defined as fluid IQ, verbal fluency, and strategic abilities, showed a higher correlation with creativity scores Silvia, than when defined as crystallized intelligence. Creativity tests, which involved convergent thinking e. That the Remote Association test also involves convergent thinking follows from the instructions; one is asked, when presented with a stimulus word e.
The word pair table—chair is a common association, more remote is the pair table—plate, and quite remote is table—shark. To circumvent the problem of tests differing in knowledge domain, one can develop out of one task a more divergent and a more convergent thinking task by asking, on the one hand, for the generation of original responses, and by asking, on the other hand, for more common responses Jauk et al.
By changing the instruction of a task, from convergent to divergent, one changes the constraints the solution has to answer and, thereby, one changes for cognition its freedom of operation Razumnikova et al. However, asking for more common responses is still a divergent thinking task because it instigates a generative and ideational process. Indeed, studying the relationship between intelligence and creativity with knowledge domain controlled for yielded different results as defined in the Threshold theory.
A study in which knowledge domain was controlled for showed, firstly, that intelligence is no predictor for the development of creativity Welter et al.
Secondly, that the relationship between scores of intelligence and creativity tests as defined under the Threshold theory was only observed in a small subset of primary school children, namely, female children in Grade 4 Welter et al. We state that relating results of operations yielded by cognitive abilities performing in defined and in ill-defined problem spaces can only be informative when it is ensured that cognitive processes also operate on an identical knowledge domain.
Eysenck observed that there is little justification for considering the constructs of divergent and convergent thinking in categorical terms in which one construct excludes the other. In processes that yield original and appropriate solutions convergent and divergent thinking both operate on the same large knowledge base and the underlying cognitive processes are not entirely dissimilar Eysenck, , p.
Divergent thinking is especially effective when it is coupled with convergent thinking Runco, ; Gabora and Ranjan, A design problem study Jaarsveld and van Leeuwen, showed that divergent production was active throughout the design, as new meanings are continuously added to the evolving structure Akin, , and that convergent production was increasingly important toward the end of the process, as earlier productions are wrapped up and integrated in the final design.
Parallel to the discussion about the intertwining of convergent and divergent thinking abilities in processes that evolve in ill-defined problem space we find the discussion about how intelligence may facilitate creative thought. This showed when top-down cognitive control advanced divergent processing in the generation of original ideas and a certain measure of cognitive inhibition advanced the fluency of idea generation Nusbaum and Silvia, Fluid intelligence and broad retrieval considered as intelligence factors in a structural equation study contributed both to the production of creative ideas in a metaphor generation task Beaty and Silvia, The notion that creative thought involves top-down, executive processes showed in a latent variable analysis where inhibition primarily promoted the fluency of ideas, and intelligence promoted their originality Benedek et al.
The various definitions of the constructs of intelligence and creativity show a problematic overlap. This overlap stems from the enormous endeavor to unanimously agree on valid descriptions for each construct. The development of the IQ measure is discussed by Carroll Not much later, Stern around noticed that, as chronological age increased, variation in mental age changes proportionally.
He developed the IQ ratio, whose standard deviation would be approximately constant over chronological age if mental age was divided by chronological age. With the development of multiple-factor-analyses Thurstone, around it could be shown that intelligence is not a simple unitary trait because at least seven somewhat independent factors of mental ability were identified.
Creativity is defined as a combined manifestation of novelty and usefulness Jung et al. Although it is identified with divergent thinking, and performance on divergent thinking tasks predicts, e.
Divergent thinking often leads to highly original ideas that are honed to appropriate ideas by evaluative processes of critical thinking, and valuative and appreciative considerations Runco, Divergent thinking tests should be more considered as estimates of creative problem solving potential rather than of actual creativity Runco, Divergent thinking is not specific enough to help us understand what, exactly, are the mental processes—or the cognitive abilities—that yield creative thoughts Dietrich, Although current definitions of intelligence and creativity try to determine for each separate construct a unique set of cognitive abilities, analyses show that definitions vary in the degree to which each includes abilities that are generally considered to belong to the other construct Runco, ; Jaarsveld et al.
Abilities considered belonging to the construct of intelligence such as hypothesis testing, inhibition of alternative responses, and creating mental images of new actions or plans are also considered to be involved in creative thinking Fuster, , as cited in Colom et al. The ability, for instance, to evaluate , which is considered to belong to the construct of intelligence and assesses the match between a proposed solution and task constraints, has long been considered to play a role in creative processes that goes beyond the mere generation of a series of ideas as in creativity tasks Wallas, , as cited in Gabora, , p.
Convergent thinking is a term coined by Joy Paul Guilford as the opposite of divergent thinking. It generally means the ability to give the "correct" answer to standard Convergent thinking is also linked to knowledge as it involves manipulating existing Convergent thinking is used as a tool in creative problem solving. Feb 9, There are typically 8 answer options and you choose the one correct answer. divergent thinking, in which you have to come up with problems to solve in the The generation stage is thought to involve divergent thinking. Convergent thinking is often used in conjunction with divergent thinking. Convergent thinking is used as a tool in creative problem-solving. creative approach, using reasoning that is not immediately obvious and involving ideas that may.