Apr 4, Sample reference list. This is how you would list your references at the end of your assignment in alphabetical order by author. References. Full details of all the works to which you refer must be supplied in a list of references or bibliography at the end of your essay. (See below regarding what form. References for coursework guidance on GCSE exams for students, parents and used someone else's work and this bad form could put your work in jeopardy.
reference list coursework
Overview Narrative and Parenthetical Citations Using et al. Citing Yourself Web Page Feedback. Introduction As strange as it may seem, you are committing self-plagiarism if you reuse your work from previous classes or degrees without appropriate citation.
Walden University's Policy on Reusing Work For guidance on when citing yourself might be appropriate, consult your instructor and the policy below from the Walden University Student Handbook During their studies at Walden, students may find themselves writing for a second, third, or fourth time on the same topic; regardless, their writing is expected to reflect new approaches and insights into that topic to demonstrate their intellectual growth.
Walden recognizes that there may be some overlap between the requirements, assignments, and inquiry for different courses and KAM demonstrations. In general, students may use only small portions of documents as background or foundational material for additional development in a subsequent assignment or research project. Students may not merely copy and paste substantial sections from one paper or KAM to another. Any use of prior work is at the discretion of the instructor: Fair use laws must be respected for published documents.
When using their own scholarly work in subsequent research, students should cite themselves as a primary author and their previous coursework or KAM demonstrations as unpublished papers, as shown in The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.
How to Cite Yourself If you cite or quote your previous work, treat yourself as the author and your own previous course work as an unpublished paper, as shown in the APA publication manual. For example, if Marie Briggs wanted to cite a paper she wrote at Walden in , her citation might look like this: Briggs asserted that previous literature on the psychology of tightrope walkers was faulty in that it "presumed that risk-taking behaviors align neatly with certain personality traits or disorders" p.
And in the reference list: If Marie Briggs's earlier paper had cited Presley and Johnson, for example, it would look like this: According to Briggs , recent psychologists such as "Presley and Johnson too quickly attributed risk-taking to genetic factors, ignoring the social family issues that often influence the decision to explore pursuits such as tightrope walking" p. Citing Yourself Video Nontraditional Sources: Citing Yourself video transcript. The Student Reuse Policy allows students who are retaking a University course after a failed attempt to reuse previous course work with proper citation and advance notice to the instructor.
This policy does not apply to Concord Law students. Whenever information does not originate in your own mind, you must cite it. Common Knowledge. There are specific times when content that is not originally yours does not need to be cited; use of common knowledge constitutes a time when, unless taken word for word from a source, a citation is not needed. Certain characteristics must be met for content to be considered common knowledge:. The key concept to remember about common knowledge is that you do not have to cite it as long as it is written in your own words.
If you take a well-known fact word for word from a source, a citation is required to attribute the wording to the source and to avoid plagiarism. Furthermore, if an interpretation of common knowledge is drawn from a source, the source needs to be cited, as the interpretation is not common knowledge or original to your writing. You might not know if something is common knowledge until you find it explained the same way in several sources, so it's best to cite it like you normally would until you adequately prove to yourself that it is common knowledge.
Statistics are generally not common knowledge and need to be cited. Clearly citing the source of the statistic is important to research writing and gives your research validity.
One strategy is to treat statistics as a quotation, with proper citation. Quoting refers to using a source without altering it in any way; passages are used from a source word for word. Too many quotations also slow the reader down due to the required quotation marks and in-text citation. Integrating Quotations. When quoting, use signal words and phrases to integrate the ideas of others in your writing.
Signal words or phrases leading into the quotation can help develop and synthesize ideas while also making your point for using the quotation clearer. Signal phrases help indicate the position of the author as well as your neutrality, agreement, or disagreement. Table 1 lists common signal words for integrating quotations. Note that in APA format, when reporting what an author said, you will want to use a past tense verb. Examples of quotations that are well-integrated into sentences with signal phrases.
Conventional medicine is often viewed as providing immediate relief for illness. It seems logical, therefore, that optimal health can be achieved by balancing conventional and alternative approaches to medicine because they both have benefits to patients.
The highlighted areas use signal words that help develop and create clear relationships between the ideas, making the point of the paragraph more developed while also making the writing flow. Quotations are not integrated when they are merely dropped into the text. Examples of drop quotes that are not integrated into sentences.
Some people think there is a good way to balance the two for optimal health. Although the last sentence in the paragraph suggests the two quotations are on the same topic, the relationship between the quotations is unclear as is how those points led to the concluding thought. To format a block quote, you do not use quotation marks. The period is inserted at the end of the quotation, and the in-text citation goes after the period. The opposite is done for a short quotation where the end punctuation follows the parenthetical citation to enclose it inside the sentence: Students do not necessarily have to be geographically placed all over the world in order to experience cross-cultural interactions because of the high rate of immigration worldwide.
For instance,. The United States is in the midst of the largest wave of immigration in its history, with over a million new immigrants per year for a total foreign-born population of over 35 million people, equaling 12 percent of its total population. Notice the paragraph continued after the quote. Quotes are more effectively integrated when the quoted information is followed by some analysis or commentary to help your reader understand its purpose or point in relationship to your own ideas.
Writers can paraphrase sources by expressing the meaning of an original passage in their own words. Paraphrasing is preferred when you want to incorporate research into your writing. Paraphrasing shows you understood what you read and therefore know what you are talking about, for you have taken what someone else said and rephrased it, so it sounds like you and so the idea fits seamlessly in your paper.
Please note that replacing a few words in an original passage or sentence with synonyms is not effective paraphrasing and could result in unintentional plagiarism, even when correct citation is included.
Original passage quoted: Acceptable paraphrase: When it comes to teaching ethics in undergraduate programs, it is preferable to use faculty who have a profound interest in the subject to teach such courses Stevenson, Unacceptable paraphrase: Educational leaders have to find faculty who are interested in ethics instead of forcing teachers who are not interested in teaching a subject they are not committed to Stevenson, The unacceptable paraphrase is plagiarized because too many words from the original passage are used without quotation marks around those words.
Writers can summarize a source by relating the main ideas of a text or passage in their own words. Summarizing is similar to paraphrasing in that you read information from a source and put it into your own words, but a summary differs from a paraphrase in the following ways:. Martinez et al. Distance can affect how well a group works together, but modern technologies have made communication with virtual team members possible and an effective means for getting the job done Martinez et al, Notice in the example that throughout the summary, the author is identified, so it is clear that the ideas in each sentence, while written with original wording, are the ideas of that author.
Summarized material in your paper needs to be cited, just as paraphrased material needs to be cited, so readers know where the ideas in the text came from and where to retrieve the same source. The bibliographic information is shortened because a full entry with all of the specifics needed to look up a source would interfere with reading your paper. If individual authors are not named, you would use the name of the sponsoring organization as the author.
For example, if you were paraphrasing from this Basic Citation Guidelines writing guide, you would use the following format: If neither an author nor sponsoring organization is unidentified, you would instead enclose the title of the article in quotation marks along with year of publication as shown here: A reference or full citation is a notation that provides all the information readers need if they want to retrieve an article, book, or other source cited in your paper.
In APA format, these citations are listed on a separate page called the reference page or reference list. Readers use in-text citations to cross-reference the full citation at the end of the document. For instance, if an in-text citation looks like this: Smith, , a reader can turn to the reference page, scan down the list of full citations and look for the book or article written by an author with the last name Smith and published in the year The information provided in a full citation is based on the type of source it is because the way you find a book is different from the way you retrieve a website or an article from an online library database.
Smith, T. A life well-lived. Hoboken, NJ: Insight Publications. East Coast Gardeners Association. Winter gardens. Retrieved from. This information is given to ensure the reader can find the same book that you used in your paper. A webpage, however, is an electronic source, so it is retrieved by knowing the URL web address and the name of the author or organization that sponsors the website along with the title of the specific webpage. Writers commonly conduct research online using library databases, websites, videos, and podcasts.
To cite electronic sourcess, you use the same information as for print sources. In-text citations should provide the author and year. Articles published online do not always have page numbers, however, so when quoting, you would provide the paragraph number instead:. The full citation on the reference page then provides the author, publication year, title, and the retrieval information such as a doi digital object identifier or the URL uniform resource locator, i. Author, A. Title of article.
Retrieved from http: If your source does not provide some of the information needed for the citation, APA offers this guide: Tables, graphs, images, and artwork that you borrow from a source and insert in your paper must be cited according to the type of source the image was retrieved from. Additionally, because images are whole works unlike an excerpt quoted from an article, the copyright must allow for reproduction. Permission is often required. Refer to the Fair Use and Public Domain section of this guide for additional details.
When using a borrowed graphic, both in-text and reference citations are needed. Figure 1 , for example. Here is the formula for a graphic borrowed from a webpage:.
Author and B. Author, year http:
Referencing and citing
Mar 27, Coursework resources exact web address may change; For multiple authors check the author layout table for in-text and reference list format. Oct 28, Placing a source in your reference list also implies that you have personally .. guide and gave it to the students as part of their coursework. Full details of the source are then given in a reference list or bibliography at the end of the text. This allows the writer to fully acknowledge her/his sources.