Review of Literature. Arora and Sarkar ()observed that the boom in the real estate and construction industry in India has caused for a sudden and sharp . 3 Review of Literature Analysis Introduction Major players in Indian Cement Industry & Nature of Competition Market Segmentation Geographical. Literature Review of Cement Industry - Download as Word Doc .doc /.docx), realized that the India has vast potential for the Cement industry and it needs.
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Wealth Management is a trusted advisor and partner in helping customers achieve the pinnacle of financial success. To consistently pursue investor's wealth optimization by: To be leader and role model in a broad based and integrated financial services business. Total expenditure reduced marginally to As a result, the total loss before depreciation and tax was This increase in loss was primarily due to continuous downside witnessed in domestic equities participation which resulted in the growth of AUM of Mutual Funds, thus impacting overall revenue.
The Company however continues to expand its distribution channel across various asset classes of financial products and range of product offering for its clients. During the year, Company mobilized aggregate funds under different asset classes. The state of equity market will be the key for growth. Though the MF industry continues to be under pressure and the revenue is at the decline, the Company has plans to strengthen its wealth management segment, streamline its retail distribution network, focus on client acquisition and engagement through its product offering across all segments, improved processes to increase the revenue stream and at the same time work on cost optimizations measures.
The cement industry in India is divided into five geographical segments, wherein the North and South regions are the leading suppliers of cement. The East, West and Central regions face deficit of cement, thereby relying on purchases from the North and South.
The Cement industry in India had a total capacity of about m tonnes MT as of financial year ended Though cement is the most preferred construction material in both housing and industrial works, its demand is directly linked to the development and growth of others industry domains, such as construction, infrastructure, finance, etc.
The housing segment that accounts for a major portion of domestic demand for cement in India is expected to witness a demand of 4. Government initiatives to boost infrastructure development and ease transportation costs should keep the demand for cement on a consistent rise. Furthermore, there are unexplored markets in the country, like the under-supplied North-east region, that are currently experiencing increasing demand for cement.
Its per capita consumption is only around kg, much lower than the global average consumption of about kg. According to the latest report from the working group on the industry for the 12th five-year Plan , India would require overall cement capacity of around million tonnes. This would mean the industry will have to add another million tonnes of capacity during the period and our country has tremendous scope for growth in the Indian cement industry in the long term.
Given the high potential for growth, quite a few foreign transnational companies have ventured into the Indian markets. Consolidation has taken place with the top two cement groups controlling nearly one-third of the total domestic capacity.
However, the balance capacity still remains quite fragmented. It's registered office is called Cement House. It is located on Maharishi Karve Road, Mumbai. The stock price of company contributes in calculating BSESensex. The management control of company was taken over by Swiss cement major Holcim in Established in , ACC has been a pioneer and trend-setter in cement and concrete technology. Among the first companies in India to include commitment to environment protection as a corporate objective, ACC has won several prizes and accolades for environment friendly measures taken at its plants and mines.
The company has also been felicitated for its acts of good corporate citizenship. The Company was set up in the year and commenced cement production in Global cement major Holcim acquired management control of Ambuja in The Company's customers range from individuals house builders to governments to global construction firms.
In FY , the Company grew from 0. The Company has five integrated cement manufacturing plants and eight cement grinding units across the country.
Cements Private Ltd. UltraTech provides a range of products including ordinary portland cement, portland blast furnace slag cement, white cement, ready mix concrete, building products and a host of other building solutions.
Shree Cement sells majority of the cement it produces in North India. The Company has a cement production capacity of Shree Cement plans to increase its existing capacity by setting up two new clinker manufacturing units of 2 MTPA capacities. The Company has also planned a new grinding unit in the state of Bihar and an integrated unit in the state of Chattisgarh. The Company's heat recovery power plants have a total capacity of 46MW which is the largest such capacity in the global cement industry excluding China.
For the same period, net profit went up by In the year a remote area in the zero-industry district of Sirohi in Rajasthan. One of the established names in the cement industry, JK Lakshmi Cement Ltd has state of the art plants at Jaykaypuram, distt. Sirohi, Rajasthan having a capacity of more than 3. We are also in the midst of finalising certain customercentric services to provide a much better cement purchasing experience. Products Upholding the tradition of JK Organisation for maintaining the highest standards inquality, JK Lakshmi Cement today is one of the most preferred brands in its marketingarea with a network of about dealers spread in the states of Rajasthan, Gujarat,Delhi, Haryana, U.
Our endeavor isalways to give our best and maintain the highest standards of customer satisfaction. The cement industry of India is the second largest producer in the world. The production of cement has increased at a compound annual growth rate CAGR of 9.
The production capacity is expected to grow to MT by FY India's potential in infrastructure is huge. The country is expected to become the world's third largest construction market by , adding Emphasis on Customer Satisfaction through Transparent Functioning 2. Strong Capital Base Weakness: Low Presence in Rural Market 2. Lesser advertising as compared to competitors Opportunity: Growing potential in the Rural Market 2. Alignment with Government Schemes 3.
Better awareness amongst people for getting insurance Threats: Economic crisis and economic instability. Hence study has to be done on the basis of information and news available about the Cement sectors i. This research had to be completed by doing Fundamental analysis and Technical analysis of the companies. However the main source of information is Annual Report issued by the companies and also quarterly reports of the current year showing their performances in current market scenario.
Firstly data was analyzed on the basis of the industry. Both the industry i. These stocks were individually analyzed and then measured whether it would give maximum returns if invested in.
In this study, the raw mill of a cement plant is considered and its performance based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics is investigated. Effects of weather conditions, moisture content of input materials, and the use of an external hot gas supply facility on the performance of the raw mill are studied.
The literature survey indicates that studies on raw mill is limited in number The literature survey … cement plant … how to improve grinding efficiency of a mill — beltconveyers. Literature review shows the past and. Ball mill improvements Mill shell lining design for optimum grinding actions Fast Setting Cement - Literature Survey.
Some of the materials require only the addition of water prior to mixing, while some are admixtures or accelerators that are added in varying amounts to a specified cement at the time of mixing. The objective of this study is to estimate the occupational asbestos exposure level and to predict the health risk Cement Mill circuits, submitted by GuruPrasath, to the National Institute of ecThnology, Tiruchirappalli, for the award of the degree of Doctor of Phi- losophy, is a bona de record of the research work carried out by him under my.
Engineers are continually pushing the limits to improve its performance with the help of innovative chemical admixtures and supplementary materials. These materials are majority by products from other processes. The use of these by products not Cement is an inorganic, non-metallic substance with hydraulic binding properties, and is used as a bonding agent in building materials.
It is a fine powder, usually gray in color, that consists of a. Literature Review 1. No notes for slide. Cement industry 1. Today cement industry has become the secondlargest cement producer in the world after China. Domestic cement demand growth has surpassed the economic growth rate for thepast three years. Cement demand in the country grows at roughly 1. Among these real estate sector is the key driver of cementdemand. The demand for cement is closely related to the growth in the constructionsector.
Consequently, cement demand has been posting a healthy growth rate ofaround 8 per cent since ,Cement is bulky commodity and cannot be easily transported over long distancesmaking it a regional market place, with the nation being divided into five regions. Each region is characterized by its own demand-supply dynamics.
Over the past fewyears the cost of cement production has grown at a CAGR of 8. Apart from this railways, urban infrastructure,ports, airports, IT sector, organized retailing, malls and multiplexes will be the mainsectors driving the demand of cement in the country. Pre IndependenceThe first endeavor to manufacture cement dates back to when a Calcuttabased company endeavored to manufacture cement from Argillaceous kankar. Butthe first endeavor to manufacture cement in an organized way commenced in 1 2.
South India Industries Limited began manufacture of Portland cement in But the effort did not succeed and the company had to halt production. In that the first licensed cement manufacturing unit was set up by India CementCompany Ltd at Porbandar, Gujarat with an available capacity of 10, tons andproduction of installed.
The First World War gave the impetus to the cementindustry still in its initial stages. The following decade saw tremendous progress interms of manufacturing units, installed capacity and production. Post-IndependenceThe growth rate of cement was slow around the period after independence due tovarious factors like low prices, slow growth in additional capacity and rising cost.
Thegovernment intervened several times to boost the industry, by increasing prices andproviding financial incentives. In , the price and distribution control system was set up to ensure fair prices forboth the manufacturers and consumers across the country and to reduce regionalimbalances and reach self-sufficiency. Period of Restriction The cement industry in India was severely restrained by the government during thisperiod. Government hold over the industry was through both direct and indirectmeans.
In the government authorized higher prices for cement manufactured by newunits or through capacity increase in existing units. But still the growth rate wasbelow par. In the government introduced a three tier price system. Prices were different forcement produced in low, medium and high cost plants. Rise in input cost, reducedprofit margins meant the manufacturers could not allocate funds for increase incapacity.
Partial Control The Government of India introduced a quota system in A quota of The remaining These changes had a desired effect on the industry.
Profitability of themanufacturers increased substantially, but the rising input cost was a cause forconcern. Post LiberalizationIn the cement industry was given complete freedom, to gear it up to meet thechallenges of free market competition due to the impending policy of liberalization. In the industry was de licensed. Cement is one of the core industries which plays a vital role in the growth andexpansion of a nation.
It is basically a mixture of compounds, consisting mainly ofsilicates and aluminates of calcium, formed out of calcium oxide, silica, aluminumoxide and iron oxide.
The demand for cement depends primarily on the pace ofactivities in the business, financial, real estate and infrastructure sectors of theeconomy. Indian cement industry is globally competitive because the industry haswitnessed healthy trends such as cost control and continuous technology upgradation.
In the current fiscal cement consumption hasshot up, reporting, on an average, The trends in all-India consumption and the growth inconsumption in the major cement-consuming States over the last five years arepresented in below table: Cement is a mixture of limestone, clay, silica and gypsum.
It is a fine powder whichwhen mixed with water sets to a hard mass as a result of hydration of the constituentcompounds. It is the most commonly used construction material. Thebasic difference lies in the percentage of clinker used. White cement is a variation of OPC and is used for decorative purposes like rendering of walls, flooring etc. It contains a very low proportion of iron oxide. Pozolona has siliceous and aluminous materials that do not possess cementing properties but develop these properties in the presence of water.
It has a lower heat of hydration, which helps in preventing cracks where large volumes are being cast. It has a heat of hydration 5 6. Special cooling technique is used.
It is used to enhance aesthetic value, in tiles and for flooring. White cement is much more expensive than grey cement. Rapid Hardening Portland cement: It is similar to OPC, except that it is ground much finer, so that on casting, the compressible strength increases rapidly.
Water Proof Cement: OPC, with small portion of calcium stearate or non-saponifibale oil to impart waterproofing properties. In general, the dry process is much more energyefficient than the wet process, and the semi wet somewhat more energy efficientthan the semi-dry process.
The semi-dry process has never played an important rolein Indian cement production and accounts for less than 0. Over the last decade, increased preference is being given to the energy efficient dryprocess technology so as to obtain a cost advantage in a competitive market. These kilnshave been phased out over the past 46 years and at present Dry process kilns aretypically larger with capacities in India ranging from 8, tons per day or tpd 6 7.
While capacities in semi-dry kilns range from , tpdand capacities in wet process kilns range from tpd average tpd. DRY PROCESSIn dry process production, limestone is crushed to a uniform and usable size,blended with certain additives such as iron ore and bauxite and discharged on to avertical roller mill where the raw materials are ground to fine powder. An electrostatic 7 8. The homogenized raw meal thus extracted is pumped tothe top of a preheater by air lift pumps.
Subsequently, the raw meal undergoes a process of 8 alcinations in aprecalcinator. The clinker formed iscooled and conveyed to the clinker silo from where it is extracted and transported tothe cement mills for producing cement.
The chemical composition is corrected and theslurry is then pumped to the kiln where evaporation of moisture, preheating,calcinations and sintering reaction takes place. The clinker is cooled andtransported, as in the case of other plants, with suitable conveyors to cement millsfor grinding.
The wet process is more energy intensive, and thus becomes expensivewhen power and energy prices are high. China and the second largest producer are quite 8 9. China produces million tonnes per year and India produces a mere million tonnes. It is noted that there is an interlinking relation between cement consumption and thegrowth of economy. The country is on a high growth track and the focus now is onthe development of the infrastructure facilities such as, highways, ports, canals,bridges, power-houses etc.
The Committee has been given to understand that theperformance of cement industry has been commendable even during the globaleconomic slowdown.
China besides being the largest producer of cement in the world is also the largestconsumer of cement in the world. The Commission also stated that the per capita consumption in Chinais around Kg, whereas in India it is Kg. NCAER observed that in India, most of the infrastructure-related cementconsumption falls under the category of departmental and non-departmentalenterprises, which constituted about 21 per cent of total cement consumption during Government and defence account for another 18 per cent, and housing forabout 42 per cent.
As against this, according to the study, about 42 per cent ofcement in Japan goes to make buildings and another 40 per cent towardsinfrastructure-related activities. Cement for making roads and bridges in Japanaccounts for Thismeans about seven million tonnes of cement is used for making roads in Japan onan annual basis.
Theindustry is characterized by a high degree of fragmentation that has created intensecompetitive pressure on price realizations. Spread across the length and breadth ofthe country, there are approximately large cement plants owned by around 52companies and mini-cement plants with an installed capacity of around Given this, cement plants arelocated close to both, sources of raw materials and markets. Most of limestonedeposits in India are located in Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh,Maharashtra and Gujarat, leading to concentration of cement units in these states.
There is a trade-off between proximity tomarkets and proximity to raw materials due to which some cement plants have beenset up near big markets despite lack of raw materials. ACC, Shree Cement UltraTech Cem. Shree Cement, JK Lakshmi others 8.
In case of exports, cement reaches thenearest port via roadways or railways and is then transferred to the importing country. There may or may not be physical ownership of goods. In the second case, dealers 13 Commercial segment — The main application areas in this segment are thesame as in the residential segment.
Whitecement based paints are also used extensively by this segment for the exteriorsof the buildings.
Indian Cement Industry
REVIEW OF LITERATURE So it is hoped that India's cement industry shall boom again in Source: The Survey of Indian Industry, The Hindu, p separately viz. Specific Review of literature, which discusses past studies that . () conducted an Empirical Study on the Indian Cement Industry. Factor. With this huge success, the cement industry in India has contributed almost 8 per cent to India's economic development. The study is about the financial performance of the ACC LIMITED. . REVIEW OF LITERATURE.