In this chapter we will spotlight on higher education and reform trends in Pakistan . It starts with text picture of Pakistan and goes on. essay surveys current college and university enrollment and capacity. First: a brief backgrounder on the history of higher education in Pakistan. From a single. Nov 19, Higher education in Pakistan: ills and remedies Introduction Higher education in Pakistan: ills a: The rising cost of education balanced.
in pakistan education on higher essay
How do students react to pair work activities during an undergraduate English course? How do students rate pair work compared to the lecture method? Initially there were ten students enrolled in the Functional English course I teach. However, four students dropped out and the study was conducted with the remaining six I acknowledge that this is a very small class compared to normal undergraduate courses in Pakistan, but it did provide a manageable context in which to experiment with my teaching.
Students had two contact hours per week for this particular course and the total duration of the course was twenty two weeks. Each week we focused on a different area of grammar. The consent of the university administration was taken in order to conduct the study. Similarly, the consent of the participants was also obtained. The names of the respondents were kept confidential and the data collected by them has been used only for the purpose of this study.
Below I describe the procedures I followed the instruments were piloted with a different group of students and found to work well. During this period, at the end of each second week so five times in total students completed an evaluation sheet designed for this study. During the second 11 weeks of the course I used pair work activities and repeated the procedure, using a second evaluation sheet every second week.
Both evaluation sheets included similar statements to facilitate comparisons see Figure 1. The sheets were a type of questionnaire — i. For the closed questions I used a three-point rating scale agree, unsure, disagree. To give respondents some choice I also included some open questions. Why or Why not? Therefore, two sets of interviews were carried out during the project. One interview was carried out in the middle of the course, after eleven weeks.
It was an individual interview with each student which helped me to get some feedback from the students regarding the lecture method. Similarly, another individual interview was carried out at the end of the course. All interviews were audio recorded and transcribed. The interviews questions are listed in the Appendix. I used descriptive statistics to analyse the closed questions in the questionnaires. The open-ended questions and the interviews were analysed qualitatively — i.
I identified recurrent themes in the data and put them into categories which described different issues raised by the students in their comments.
Findings 4. The three possible answers to each statement in the questionnaire agree, unsure, disagree were assigned respective values of 3, 2 and 1, and mean scores out of 3 for each item calculated as noted above, each questionnaire was completed five times. Thus a higher mean reflects a higher level of agreement with each statement.
These are three characteristics of lessons which we would expect pair work to promote more effectively than lectures. In terms of enjoyment, students rated lecture and pair work approaches equally positively.
Overall, what these results suggest is that students value the lecture approach more, but recognize too that pair work activities offer certain advantages. This suggests that combining both approaches is likely to be an effective way to proceed.
I prefer this way of learning Did not speak L1 Should be used during English lessons Neither too short nor too long Students helped each other Pair work Lecture Felt more confident I enjoyed it Interact with my classmates Talk in English with my classmates 1 1.
Table 1 lists the main benefits of lectures students identified. As noted above, each questionnaire was completed five times by six students and in this table N refers to the total number of times a benefit was mentioned in the open-ended responses.
Other than these main benefits, the students also felt that lectures helped them improve their English, provided more support from the teacher when difficulties arose, were easier to follow, and promoted interaction between the teacher and students. Benefits of the lecture method. Table 2: Overall, the comments reported below confirm that the students saw several benefits in both lectures and pair work.
They did not particularly like or dislike any lecture. Discussion The data indicate that students enjoyed both the lecture method and pair work activities. However, they felt they helped each other more during the pair work activities. Also, pair work activities as compared to the lecture method provided them with more opportunities to interact with one another and talk in English language. This reflects what Harmer , as noted earlier, says about pair work second language teaching and learning.
The interviews with the students suggested that they felt pair work activities helped them to improve their speaking skills and they enjoyed these activities.
Therefore, personally I believe both methods should be used by teachers of English in higher education. The study has contributed a great deal to my professional development and my teaching strategies as I have started using both methods in my classes regularly.
Conclusion Lecturing remains the predominant mode of teaching in higher education in Pakistan, and this also applies to the teaching of English language. My aim here was not to criticize lecturing as an instructional strategy — it clearly has many benefits, my students recognized and valued these, and lecturing will continue to play a role in my courses.
However, there is clearly space in the teaching of English to create opportunities for students to work interactively and make the learning of English a more practical and enjoyable activity.
My aim here was to conduct a small-scale study in my own teaching context and to use this to enhance my own teaching. In this sense the study was successful. It would be interesting, though, for similar studies to be conducted on a larger scale and in a range of different contexts. I hope to continue exploring the use of pair work in my teaching and I hope that this work stimulates a similar interest in readers. Designing and conducting mixed methods research. Thousand Oaks: Denscombe, M.
The good research guide for small-scale social research projects. Open University Press. Doff, A. A training course for teachers. Questionnaires in second language research: Construction, administration and processing 2nd ed. Harmer, J. The Practice of English Language Teaching. Wright, A. Betteridge, D. Games for language learning 3rd Ed. If yes, tell me about it. Which one and why? Individual Interview Questions for the Lecture Method: The use of interviews provided added some qualitative insights to those from the questionnaires.
One key limitation here was the size of the sample — a class of six students is somewhat untypical of the larger classes many higher education teachers in Pakistan face, and thus it would be valuable to repeat this work in a more typical setting. A larger sample would also allow for more detailed analyses of the quantitative data than were possible here. The quantity of data generated by the instruments used could also have been extended, especially through the conduct of more detailed interviews.
This would have allowed the qualitative dimension of the study to play a more central role than it did here. Introduction Large classes are a characteristic feature of education in Pakistan and are the cause of many of the problems that bedevil it.
Large classes constrain teachers to resort to traditional teacher-centred methods, leaving little scope for activities promoting interactivity through group work, role play and other cooperative learning techniques. In higher education in particular, interactive classes often seem highly unfeasible.
There is no push or impetus for making classes interactive and teachers continue to teach with traditional and often outdated methodologies. Academicians and policy makers, too, often seem unsure about the benefits and advantages of making classes interactive.
The aim of this project is thus to explore the potential for making college and university English classes more interactive by using group work. This is a tried and tested method in other parts of the world and one which is believed to be effective in making classes interactive. My aim here is not just to see whether group work can be implemented but whether this is possible in a system with large classes, traditional seating arrangements, and attitudes in both teachers and students that are often averse to innovation.
As part of this project, a needs analysis was done to assess existing teaching practices in Pakistan. This analysis also highlighted the factors that currently limit opportunities for interaction in classrooms. These factors are: The challenges of large classes have of course been discussed widely in the literature. In Pakistan, students are generally taught the value of good communication skills but they are hardly ever trained in them. One response to this issue is to promote group work in class in order to encourage interaction among the students and make them work together for common goals and objectives.
There is much support for such an approach to learning in L2 learning — e. Coleman, - and in education more generally. For example, according to Baines et al. However, doubts over the efficacy of group work are sometimes shared by both teachers and students.
Group work can present three kinds of problems for the teachers. Selecting tasks and integrating them into classroom work are also problem areas for teachers wanting to introduce group work. In assessment- oriented contexts which focus on written exams, students too may often resist attempts to introduce communicative group work pedagogies.
One purpose of this study was to examine whether this would be the case in my context. Methodology 3. Most of the programs are co-educational but some are only for male students. The size of the classes generally varies from 50 to All 13 English language teachers who participated in this study worked in this context. They used group work to varying degrees though probably not very often and where they felt it could be integrated appropriately into their routine teaching.
In addition, the 62 students who responded to the questionnaire were randomly selected from two of my English language classes on the Bachelor of Science programme. Thirty questionnaires were distributed in one class and 32 in the other. There were both male and female students in the classes. These students did group work routinely. I would give the students minutes in each class to work in groups on the tasks given in the course book.
The students sitting on a bench, usually four to five in number, would huddle together and engage in discussion. Though it was not an ideal seating arrangement, the students generally responded well to the tasks assigned to them in groups. They thus had sufficient experience of working in groups before responding to the questionnaires. The questionnaires contained both closed and open ended questions.
The statements elicited responses to the following issues: Closed questions were followed by some open questions which were about the use of group work in the English classroom. The questionnaire for students consisted of 23 statements, also on a five-point scale of agreement. These statements focused on the benefits of group work, interaction during group work, and group formation. These statements were followed by some open questions through which students could explain in more detail their feelings about group work.
The Likert scale data were analysed through SPSS, using descriptive statistics such as frequency counts. The open questions were entered into a word processor, grouped according to each question, then common themes and issues were identified. Similar procedures were applied to the student questionnaire. Large classes produce confident students. Large classes are conducive to producing critical skill. Large classes promote rote learning.
Large classes are good for shy students. Large classes are dominated by few leading students. Large classes are interactive 9 3 1 7. Large classes are student-centered 8 4 1 8. Large classes are teacher-centered 5 1 7 9. Large classes are not interrupted due to disciplinary issues 8 3 2 Large classes allow teacher to focus on teaching solely 10 0 3 Large classes produce better results in assessment 8 3 2 Large classes work well in annual system 6 2 5 Large classes work well in semester system 7 3 3 Disagreement with these statements was predominant and there were only four items where more teachers agreed than disagreed.
Similar numbers disagreed that large classes are student-centred and that disciplinary issues do not interrupt, while eight teachers also agreed that large classes are dominated by a small number of students.
The seating arrangement in the classrooms allows the students to 4 0 9 interact. Even with the traditional seating arrangement group work can be 7 1 5 carried out. The students show interest in group work. Good students show more interest in group work.
Poor students do not benefit much from group work. All the students in a group take part in discussion. All the members in a group listen to each other carefully. Group discussion is generally dominated by one member. Group members take turns while talking. Students use critical skills in group discussions. Group work does not hinder teaching of curriculum 6 1 6 Group work produces desired results. Group work should be a regular feature of teaching 2 1 10 Group work is good for teaching languages only 5 0 8 Same ability groups benefit all the members.
Mixed ability groups benefit the poor students. Friendship groups work well and achieve desired goals. Group formation should take into account personality styles of the students. Equal gender mix encourages more participation group than same gender groups.
Group formation takes into account the ethnic background of the members. The group formation takes into account the social class of the members. The group members are randomly selected by the teacher. The students are given a free choice in group formation.
What was the major issue in conducting group work in the class room? A key challenge teachers noted was that group members did not interact well with each other. Teachers also reported that the students showed a lack of interest in group work and did not pay attention to it.
Shy and more able students also responded to group work in different ways, as one teacher noted: Maintenance of discipline, the size of the class, limited space and lack of time were also cited as issues in conducting group work. What was the major impetus for the students to get involved in the group work?
According to the teachers, students were also motivated by the competitive nature of group work and the possibility that doing well would earn them good marks. Teachers made a number of suggestions for improving the effectiveness of group work: As this table shows, the students were very positive about their experience of group work.
Only 6. Table 4: Group work has helped improve my speaking skill. Group work has made me more confident. Group work has improved my relations with my class fellows. I did not feel shy of taking part in an argument 8.
Group work helped me in developing discussion skills 1. Group work has improved my analytical skill. Group work did not help me. These results suggest that group work was not seen by students to be successful in enabling all students to participate.
Table 5: It was easy to resolve a disagreement. Shy students did not participate in the group work. Some members did not take part in the discussion. The non-participants were generally ignored in the group. All the students had equal opportunities to share in the 6.
Group leaders generally dominated the group discussion. I took my turn while participating in a discussion 1. Group members took the group work seriously 6. Sometimes we digressed from the topic Table 6: Selection of the members in the groups was random I enjoyed working in group of my choice 1. Working in a mixed ability group was more productive. Ethnic background of the group members did not disturb I felt comfortable in the same gender group Working in a mixed gender group was more competitive.
Working in a mixed gender group was difficult. Write down any ways in which you think you and the rest of the group could work better together next time. The majority of the students 49 out of 61 believed that they could work better if group work is done on a regular basis. Was group work a good activity? While not very insightful, such comments were unanimous.
Did it really motivate the students to speak? Again, the students did not elaborate on this, for example, by explaining what it was that motivated them. The students listed a wide range of problems they faced during group work. By far the most common, though, was that group work is time- consuming. Other comments students made were that group work: Should group work be a regular part of teaching or it should be an occasional activity?
Only five students said there should be no group work in class. Discussion Overall, this study suggests that both teachers and students had generally positive attitudes about group work and its potential to make the learning of English in large classes more interactive. Teachers acknowledged many of the problems that large classes create and saw group work as one way of addressing some of these.
Students were very positive about their experience of group work, felt it supported their learning and development in several ways, and expressed the view that group work should be used more regularly in English classes.
At the same time, both teachers and students had concerns about how group work could be made productive given the many perceived constraints that exist in the context of university teaching in Pakistan. Similarly, concerns that group work requires special resources and is time-consuming are also perhaps based on misconceptions of what the activity involves, although the time issue is one that merits further attention given that it reflects broader problems with an educational system which focuses on written factual products as evidence of learning and pays less attention to communication, interpersonal and collaborative skills.
Clearly, if group work is to become an integral part of the way English is taught at universities in Pakistan, its relationship to current assessment systems will need close consideration. Otherwise, as shown here, students may see group work as enjoyable respite from lecturing but which they feel is not preparing them for assessment. Another challenge highlighted here related to how all students can be involved in group work — the results suggested that shyer or less able students may tend to be left out and the work dominated by the more outgoing or able.
Broader attitudinal challenges that group work raises relate to conventional notions of teaching and learning which are the norm in Pakistan. Accepting group work means that teachers must change their view of their role, while students must also accept more responsibility for being active learners rather than expecting knowledge to be transmitted by teachers.
It is these kinds of attitudinal changes which are perhaps most difficult to bring about. Yet the small-scale intervention this study is based on suggests that it is possible to integrate group work into our system and that, used regularly and with careful planning, its value can be recognized by teachers and students.
Conclusion Large classes are a feature of the education system in Pakistan and these cannot be wished away. Yet rather than criticizing large classes, our focus should shift towards finding ways of making large classes interactive. This study suggests that group work can be a useful strategy in this respect.
Both teachers and students agreed that group work should be conducted regularly and they felt it proved effective in developing confidence in the students and improving their speaking, discussion and critical skills.
It was also felt that group work resulted in improved relationships among students. This study thus makes a case for making group work a regular feature of English lessons at university. Teachers, of course, should receive appropriate support in order to implement the changes that are needed to their teaching. Group composition is an important issue.
This study shows that students like to work in friendship groups or groups of their own choice. Mixed gender groups can also motivate students to take a more active part in group work and promote competition among the students, although some students found that a mix of genders created difficulties for them.
These are issues I, with my colleagues, will continue to explore as we build on this initial study. References Coleman, H. British Council. Baines, E. Promoting effective group work in the classroom. Blatchford, P. Toward a social pedagogy of classroom group work. Teaching English language in disadvantaged contexts: International Journal of Social Science Tomorrow, 1 3. In that sense it manages to balance local and more global concerns, thus illustrating that teacher research can be of broad relevance.
The questionnaires were thoughtfully designed and organised, though, as with most new instruments, they would benefit from further development if used in further studies. Some open-ended questions were included to elicit more detailed comments about group work but these played a minor role and, particularly in the case of the students, did not generate much material. As the author notes, interviews would have been more useful in eliciting extended views about group work from a sub-set of teachers and students.
One other area where the study could have been improved is in the detail it provides about the prior knowledge and experience of group work the participants had. We are told that teachers used group work and that the author himself used it frequently; what exactly this involved, though, was never fully clarified. Doing so would have allowed readers to engage with the paper in a more informed way.
Introduction The traditional pattern of teacher-centred lecture method is gradually starting to be challenged in higher education in Pakistan in favour of a more interactive learning pedagogy and one which promotes learner autonomy. Despite this emphasis on the learner, however, the teacher retains a central role in designing and implementing interactive learning experiences for university students.
The purpose of this study is to document my own attempts to deliver a new interactive course for my students and to examine their reactions to it. Explorations of this kind are so far rare in Pakistan. Interactive Learning Over the last forty years the learner-centred approach has reshaped teacher and learner roles. Current educational theory challenges the idea that traditional lectures will develop in students higher-order cognitive abilities.
Nevertheless, lecturing is still, by far, the most predominant method of instruction in most higher education institutions in Pakistan. Learning is seen as a process facilitated by the teacher rather than a static product. Nevertheless, learner autonomy can be supported by educational interventions Candy, and the teacher has an important role to play in providing such support.
Methodology This project was guided by the following research questions: What interactive processes characterize my teaching? What is the rationale for the selection of these processes? As the practitioner researcher in this project I was also a participant. Informed consent Salkind, was obtained from the students prior to the study and they also granted permission as recommended by Denscombe, for me to use their class work and assignments for research purposes.
Action Research is enquiry that is concerned with practical issues that arise in the real world. Its aim is not only to understand, but also to bring about change and improvement in actual practice. Action Research supports continuing professional self-development Cohen et al.
I started off with the qualitative strand of the project and later on conducted the quantitative strand. The aim was to promote learner autonomy. I designed various activities to involve students in interactive, collaborative learning processes. However, the focus of this report is on the use of one particular activity — asking students to write a research paper.
Data were collected from different sources using several research tools: Keeping a diary: It included a record of the objectives, plan and preparation I did before every class.
I designed a questionnaire to elicit feedback from students on my ways of teaching. Students were assured that their comments would be treated confidentially. I had also asked one of my colleagues to observe my teaching practices twice a month to provide data to compare to my own insights, but the plan could not be implemented because of the busy schedule of my colleague. The qualitative data I collected through my diary, conversations with students and self-observations of my classes were analysed holistically and from these I identified key themes relevant to an understanding of the issues under study — i.
The quantitative data were subjected to basic descriptive statistics. Findings After six credit hours teaching, when I reflected on my teaching practices, I realized, among other observations, that I had been slipping quite often into the teacher-centred lecture method: I tried to make the philosophical complexity and historical backdrop interesting by interspersing anecdotes and jokes. But they were not thinking critically; rather they were overwhelmed by a teacher who bombarded them with her knowledge.
As a result of self-reflection, I realized that though I began with student-centred activities, I interjected very quickly and quite often to explain and help students to find answers. I gave them little time to critically engage with an issue and formulate responses, and quite often answered my own questions, assuming that I know more and that students cannot understand unless I explain the concepts to them.
The most important issue that I needed to address was how interactive, collaborative learning can be implemented. I tried to use each of these three elements as the organizing principles in teaching research methods.
The initial response by students to writing a research paper was excitement. They proposed many grandiose topics for research, e. So I developed a plan to specify the parameters of their area of research. The area of research was limited, but within these parameters they were given the freedom to choose a topic of their own interest. They could focus on any of the problems faced by either girls or boys at any level.
At this stage, I elicited their feedback by asking this question: Earlier they were individually working on their topics, now they were asked to collaborate and work in groups. Each group comprised six members. I changed the tutorial pattern from meetings with individuals to groups. However, the initial excitement of students appeared to subside; what appeared to be so simple and easy while listening to the lectures suddenly became a Herculean task.
Their prior learning experience had not trained them to work independently, and at this stage the difference between knowledge product and knowing process emerged. What was transmitted by way of lecture in six credit hours - selecting a topic, determining its feasibility, providing a rationale and formulating research questions — took the students 18 credit hours to do in practice.
I assumed that students would be able to finish the research paper after 32 credit hours of teaching, but they went very quiet and I was quite concerned. Later on, through a close analysis of the feedback questionnaire and focused conversations, three causes of their reactions emerged: I was being too ambitious in demanding immediate results from students who had no prior experience of autonomous learning; they did not take it seriously because they thought that it was out of course; and they also knew that they would not be tested on it in the final exams.
Students provided me with candid and honest feedback. Table 1 provides is a quantitative analysis of the feedback questionnaire. Of the five groups in the class, three completed the task of producing a research report; the other two did not go beyond the data collection stage. In many conversations with different students in different groups and different sittings and settings, it emerged that collaborative, interactive learning functioned as an effective strategy in carrying out the learning, not only outside the class but even during the unpredictable holidays.
They learnt and used e-resources to collaborate, as well as tools such as Skype. Though four students came up to me protesting against the absentee fine1, none complained about the final evaluation of their work by me. I interpret this as acceptance of their responsibility for their learning.
Their ungrudging acceptance of the evaluation and their frank responses gave me the confidence that they trusted me and believed that their opinions were valued and respected.
Table 1: Exercise freedom in choosing a topic. Develop self-reliance in learning. Study material not taught in the course. Develop critical thinking. Explore knowledge according to my interest. Develop ability to decide what I need to 0 0 0 60 40 learn. When the teacher involves students in class activities, I understand the 0 0 0 70 30 lesson easily. I prefer to write assignments in the 10 40 0 30 20 traditional style. I feel more relaxed when working in 0 20 0 50 30 groups.
I feel challenged because I have to 0 10 0 70 20 work harder. I feel myself responsible for my 0 0 0 80 20 learning process. I feel encouraged because I could do 0 0 0 10 90 it. Discussion Interactive teaching methodology should be introduced gradually with the full realization that students who do not have prior experience of such a way of learning will find it difficult.
Learner autonomy is related to learner ability and experience. Students are a potentially conservative force within the classroom and often need to become accustomed to new ideas and different styles. The resistance that my students showed in learning by doing writing the research paper stemmed from their belief that what is prescribed in the syllabus is more important than the process of learning.
This belief shaped their behaviour and attitudes, as shown in their primary concern with getting good scores. Though they managed to think, choose, decide and work independently, what ultimately made them do the task was my decision to assess them on the basis of their research paper.
This shows the power of administrative rules, which resist and override the implementation of new ideas and pragmatic concerns Tait, The implication here is that if new methods of learning are to be successfully implemented, then they have to be, with the support of the government, systematically built into the educational system. Professional development programmes, particularly those which support teachers in examining teaching and learning in their own contexts, are thus vital to systematic educational reforms,.
Conclusion I am not suggesting that lectures have no further place to play in higher education in Pakistan — they certainly do. My goal here, though, was to explore alternatives which give the students more responsibility and which also focus on making learning more practical. This approach was particularly suitable for the research methods course I taught, because research is ultimately about doing not just about knowing. I have found the experience of examining my own teaching very fulfilling and I hope my account encourages readers to consider what alternative pedagogies they might experiment with in their own contexts.
References Ball, C. Teaching research methods to undergraduate psychology students using an active cooperative learning approach. Barnett, R.
Engaging the curriculum in higher education. Can research methods ever be interesting? Active Learning in Higher Education, 4 1 , Bereiter, C. Chipman, J. Chipman Eds. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Borg, S. Candy, Self-direction for lifelong learning. Cohen, L. Research methods in education 6th ed. Creswell, W. The good research guide for small-scale research projects 3rd ed. Hadley, G.
Action research in action. Head, K. Readings in teacher development. Holmes, J. Talking about learning: Kolb, D. Experience as the source of learning and development. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Litosseliti, L. Using focus groups in research. Little, D. Learner autonomy: Definitions, issues and problems. Mayo, D. Discovering the classroom community. Hadley Ed.
Nunan, D. The learner-centred curriculum: A study in second language teaching. Understanding language classrooms. Hemel Hempstead: Prentice Oliver, M.
Engaging with the research methods curriculum. Reflecting Education, 4 1 , Salkind, N. Sage Publications. Savin-Baden, M. Problem-based learning in higher education: Untold stories.
Tait, J. H postgraduate certificate. The Open University Tataka, S. Learning by doing: The teaching of sociological research methods. Teaching Sociology ,15, New methods for humanities research. The Lyman Award Lecture. Retrieved 21 October from http: Wenden, A. Learner strategies for learner autonomy. Winn, S. Teaching research methods through student participation in a commissioned research project.
Studies in Higher Education, 20 2 , The benefits of this reflective process for the teacher were an enhanced understanding of her thinking, beliefs, work, and students. In terms of methodology, a range of data from different sources were used, though the focus here was on the qualitative data; the quantitative data did in fact play a minor role and more such data perhaps collected via student questionnaires at intervals during the course would have extended the study.
Introduction While in bilingual societies code-switching - alternating between two languages - is a common practice, the use of the L1 in L2 learning is often frowned upon. More recently, though, more positive views about the use of the L1 in L2 learning have emerged and this stimulated me to examine what teachers and students in my institution feel about using the L1 during English lessons.
This reality is being increasingly recognized and accepted in applied linguistics. Widespread migration and globalization in recent years mean that non-native speakers of English now outnumber native speakers globally Crystal, Widdowson argues that conventional monolingual teaching procedures fail to recognize the ways in which all bilingual users fuse their knowledge of two languages into a single system of compound bilingualism.
He also considers it inevitable and natural to use L1 as a positive resource and a pedagogic advantage. In terms of what happens in the classroom, Edstrom observes that whilst there is considerable variation in the reported quantities of own language use by teachers, the reported functions of own language use are relatively constant. In contrast, it has also been argued that teachers and students are in fact best placed to make decisions about how to exploit the L1 in L2 learning Rivers, In any case, it is likely that the extent to which teachers and students use the L1 will depend on their conception of the legitimacy, value and appropriate classroom functions of the mother tongue.
Iqbal has investigated code-switching in higher education in Pakistan, but not with a specific focus on the teaching of English.
Methodology I addressed these three questions: To what extent do Pakistani college teachers of English code-switch during lessons, according to students and teachers? Why do these teachers say they use code-switching in English classes? Five of my colleagues, all teachers of English in the same college, also contributed to the study.
I had two sets of data. Quantitative data were gathered from questionnaires, which, according to Gillham , are the most commonly used instrument in social research. I also collected qualitative data through semi-structured interviews. As Gillham also notes, good research cannot be built on poorly collected data and therefore I paid careful attention to the design of my instruments and piloted them as well. The questionnaire was a two-page, self-administered pencil and paper instrument.
I first collected some background information about the respondents, then asked them whether they felt their English teacher s used code-switching or not. There were also questions about their attitudes to the use of Urdu in English classes and the impact this had on learning English. Administration took place in class and 15 minutes were allowed for this purpose.
The other instrument I used was the semi-structured interview. As Denscombe notes, this type of interview is flexible because it allows topics that emerge during the conversation to be pursued.
Five English-teacher colleagues of mine were interviewed and their teaching experience ranged from 7 to 23 years. All five teachers were fluent in Urdu and English, and some spoke other languages too such as Punjabi and Arabic.
I would like my teacher to use Urdu more than she 0 0 1 17 1 does. I think my teacher should speak less Urdu during 2 11 1 5 0 lessons. I prefer to ask the teacher questions in Urdu than in 0 3 2 13 1 English. Students like teachers who allow the use of Urdu 0 9 4 4 2 more than those who insist on English only.
When teachers let students use Urdu it creates a 2 5 3 8 1 better classroom atmosphere. Thirteen actually think their teachers should speak less Urdu during lessons and only 3 said they prefer to ask questions in class in Urdu. Almost half of the respondents think that students like those teachers who allow the use of Urdu more than those who insist on English 6 disagreed and 4 were unsure. Only 7 students felt that when teachers let students use Urdu it creates a better classroom atmosphere; nine disagreed with this statement.
An inductive approach to the analysis was used to look for the common themes in the data and the following two main areas were identified: Suggestions regarding more use of English. I discuss each theme below. Only one teacher said she believed that using both Urdu and English was desirable. Teachers identified several reasons for using Urdu. They would all like their students to use it more, and agreed about the kinds of changes that were needed to allow this.
Another explained: Yes, I would like a strict policy for the teachers regarding the use of L1 in language classes. English language learning should be promoted for all disciplines and substantial credit like speedy promotion should be given to those who gain good proficiency in English. More and more chances should be provided to teachers as well students to interact with English native speakers. Language courses should be regularly held free of charge both for the teachers and students during academic years.
Discussion Overall, the teachers in this study felt that maximizing the use of English during their classes was desirable and that Urdu use should be minimized. Students also recognized the value of increasing English use, though they were not of the view that Urdu use should be eliminated. Differences such as these in the perspectives of teachers and students are not unusual and highlight the value of research which tries to understand the views of different stakeholders in the learning process.
Once these understandings are available, steps to minimize unproductive discrepancies can be taken. Apart from one teacher and one student, all other participants in this study acknowledge that Urdu use was a feature of English lessons. These findings link to the literature discussed earlier which recognizes that in monolingual L2 classes where the teacher shares an L1 with the students, the L1 will always play some role. Also, as noted in the literature, this is not necessarily a bad thing and the challenge for teachers is to find ways of using the L1 productively rather than allowing it to interfere with L2 learning.
Teachers can be supported in this task by appropriate forms of professional development, as suggested by the teachers in this study. They can, too, benefit, by systematically studying their own practices, understanding their own beliefs, and learning more about what their students feel. This study has allowed me to take the first step in such reflective enquiry and enabled me to reconsider my original views that English-only is the best policy in my context.
Conclusion Theoretical arguments and reality often do not coincide in ELT. The case of L1 use in L2 learning suggests that, over time, it is reality that shines through; thus, we have moved beyond arguments for eliminating the L1 and are now focusing more on how the L1 can be used effectively as part of the process of L2 learning. This seems to be a much healthier position to adopt, particularly in a context such as my own where L1 use has always been a feature of English classes.
Rather than creating feelings of guilt among teachers who, often for good reasons, need to use the L1, what we need is further classroom-based research of the type presented here and through which teachers of English can explore and share insights into how the L1 might be used, in a principled manner, as a resource in learning English. The emphasis here on the principled use of the L1 is important — it requires teachers to critically examine what they do and to question whether the reasons they sometimes cite in support of L1 use are in fact justified..
References Arthur, J. Code switching and collusion: Classroom interaction in Botswana primary schools. Linguistics and Education 8, Benson, M. The secret life of grammar translation — Part 2.
Butzkamm, W. Caldwell The bilingual reform: A paradigm shift in foreign language teaching. Narr Dr Gunter. Cook, V. Using the first language in the classroom. Canadian Modern Language Review 57 3 , — Cresswell, J.
Designing and conducting mixed methods research 2nd Ed. Crystal, D. English as a global language 2nd ed. Rethinking monolingual instructional strategies in multilingual classrooms. Canadian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 10 2 , — The good research guide for small-scale social research projects 4th Ed.
Edstrom, A. L1 use in the L2 classroom: Gillham, B. Small-scale social survey methods. Hall, G. Own language use in language teaching and learning. Language Teaching, 45, Iqbal, L. Linguistic features of code switching: International Journal of Humanities and Social Science 1 Retrieved 23 October from http: Equity and English in South African higher education: Ambiguity and colonial language legacy. Edge Ed. Palgrave Macmillan. McMillan, B. The practice of policy: System, 39 2 , — Rivers, D.
Politics without pedagogy: Questioning linguistic exclusion. ELT Journal 65 2 , Seargeant, P. Exploring world Englishes: Language in a global context. In the present times, it has become a serious challenge for many parents, given their economic situation, to sponsor their children to pursue higher education even in a public university.
In this scenario, privatization of education is equivalent of adding insult to the injury. As funding for higher learning institutions decreases, universities seek funding from private sources.
As a consequence, universities begin to fund themselves through a combination of student tuition and other businesses interests. Obsolete methods and outdated curricula are still ubiquitous in this epoch of modern technology. By and large, teaching methods are not moving away from the old-fashioned model of lectures.
These methods make students more passive. In most of the reputed universities, still out-dated syllabus is taught with conventional methods. Top universities namely, Harvard, Stanford, and Warton continuously involve students in project-based problem-solving case studies. Therefore, Benjamin Franklin has aptly remarked that: Tell me and I forget. Teach me and I remember. Involve me and I learn. High-quality faculty conundrum is another ill that our higher education system is going through. The quality faculty is indispensable for the quality education and research.
Without competent faculty, providing qualitative education remains a far-flung dream. In our education system, there is a severe dearth of eminent professors and lectures. Similarly, Pakistani universities lack research owing to the shortage of quality faculty. Besides, shortage of best faculty, our universities also lacks Ph.
As higher education commission HEC mentioned that our country is in need of thirty-six thousand PhDs. Therefore the nation expects Pakistani universities to contribute to basic and practical research to help minimize the problems of higher education. An absence of Strong commitment to research and knowledge creation is the depiction of the fact that our system is in a serious quandary.
A key factor in the production of knowledge is the existence of research-intensive, knowledge producing, institutions. An inability to attract and retain high performing researchers negatively impacts the productivity of the institutions. Many examples are present in our country that shows the grim picture of our education system.
For instance, Sultan Bashiruddin Mahmood, Pakistani nuclear engineer proclaimed that: Such impractical solutions are the reflection of the fact that, there is a dearth of practical research in our country. Include plagiarism angle too. No focus on innovation in the institutions further pile up the ills of higher education in Pakistan. Innovation is unequivocally deficient in our higher education system.
Low standards of science education in our educational institutions are reflected on variegated fronts. Without any shadow ambiguity, Pakistan lags behind the world in innovation.
It's a pity that Pakistan ranks at out of countries in the Global Innovation Index. This spearheads economic growth and development to jump Out of frying pan into the fire. Similarly, HEC's fallacious policy criterion emphasizes only on quantity, with little or no emphasis on quality shows that our education system lack creativity and innovation.
It is imperative to be mindful of the fact that not even a single Pakistani research journal in the field of engineering has received international exposure, or impacted the scientific community at large.
Low GDP investment in higher education than requisite is a challenge to our education system. This ailment also results in hampering the development of the nation. As education and development have a direct link with each other. Without investing in education, the prosperity of the country remains a castle in the air. Education is an area that attracted the least focus of the government. This reinforces the idea that is education not a priority in Pakistan?
Lacunae between the qualification obtained and skills required pose a serious threat to our higher education system. This Mismatch between the skills essential and the education obtained the result in unemployability. Developed countries like UK Germany spend 5 percent. In the same way, rote learning and cramming culture are amongst the biggest flaws of our education system. It encourages cramming and forgetting rather than lifelong learning.
In such a flawed system, students study only to score marks in the examination. These sorts of practices defeat the purpose of higher education.
As a consequence graduates are ill-equipped in terms of skills and knowledge. Nonconducive academic environment, adjunct to it, is another ill that haunt the higher education system. The friendly milieu is pre-requisite for education. Acquiring quality education in the non-peaceful environment is a far-flung dream. Religious and political wings in universities are a serious threat to the healthy functioning of the institutions. It is imperative to be wary of the fact that campus violence is on the rise in our country.
Clashes among political and religious wings raise tensions and disrupt academic activities. Since her inception in , Pakistan has introduced nine education policies. The first education policy was introduced in With chequered national education policies, the recent education policy was introduced in by the Ministry of Federal Education of Pakistan.
The major programs and targets proposed for the promotion of higher education include: However, these policies are lacking practical implementation and no concrete steps have been put forward in this line.
Merely, introducing education policy is not a sufficient way to address the predicaments of higher education. Government is committed to implementing these policies.
Despite governments endeavors to cope with the chronic problems of higher education, the ghost of ills are still chasing us. The miseries in the higher education system are abundant, ranging from the rising cost to cramming culture. At the same time, thwarting this quandary is attainable. FIRST and foremost, making university education affordable is the cry of the day, in order to console the doldrums of higher education. In recent years, the cost of the university education skyrocketed.
Consequently, we need to overcome this dismal situation. There are many ways to make university education more affordable.
For instance, by improving the productivity of the sector so that students learn as much, but at a lower cost. Additionally, the government needs to provide incentives and subsidies amid proper accountability and transparency. Second, public-private partnerships are presented as capable of resolving the issues of our higher education.
With stagflation of education and privatization of institutions, acquiring higher education at present times has become difficult. Through innovative partnerships with leading universities, we expand opportunities for higher education. This also ensures student and staff success. Similarly, these developments have the potential to transform the higher education system. Many countries have collaborative partnerships with private Institutions. One such country is Australia.
Marginson and considine mentioned in their book that, public-private partnership transformed their whole system of education of the country. Third, remedy is that we need to focus on strong commitment to research and knowledge. Research is possible in the echo system in which faculty members have inspiration from faculty members and peer groups as well.
The foregoing discussion implies that research thrives on the discussion. It flourishes when various groups freely discuss differing viewpoints. Unlike universities like Harvard and Stanford, our education system is based upon classroom approach.
This conventional way of teaching provides a well-filled mind, not a well-formed mind. Therefore, it is time to change this approach. In this regard, we need to develop public policy reforms which identify the true talent of every school, college and university across all disciplines to nurture them to research and knowledge creation. Fourth, redesigning the institutional imagination that we have is indispensable to solace the misery of higher education.
Syllabus and theories taught in the Pakistani universities are hardly upgraded. Syllabus rarely gets revised. Nonetheless, the mismatch is there between policy formulation and its implementation. Because the aim of the study is to explore the creativity and imagination to inspire university students to produce works by instructional design. Fifth, we need to create institutions of excellence that equip students to excel in their professional lives. In the scenario, where institutions lack quality, producing workhorses remain a distant ambition.
In order to impart quality education which is at par with international standards, it is of paramount importance to create institutions of excellence.
Unequivocally we need quality. Therefore we need to set up high-quality institutions. These are good examples of quality education; however, the average Pakistani higher education institutions are simply not of the quality, that we all are poised to see.
Include this point.
HIGHER EDUCATION IN PAKISTAN
Oct 20, A Critical Analysis of education system in Pakistan Essay 】 from best many sources available for elite class to go abroad for higher education. Nonpartisan Education Review / Essays: Volume 4, Number 2 .. The above problem is a great challenge for higher education in Pakistani and South Asian. The system of education in Pakistan is normally divided into five levels: the Intermediate education, the students can go for the higher education to universities.