View Flood Control Research Papers on servicerewiew.fun for free. Thus, the research concerning about the flood control scheduling scheme and strategy in Luhun Article (PDF Available) · August with 1, Reads. In the present paper, we investigate the effectiveness of a flood defense project based on storage reservoirs, presently under study for the Magra River and Vara .
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Request Permissions. Editorial department of Nanjing Yearbook , Nanjing academy of urban planning and design Co. Xin, R. Discussing on problem and solving project of city's flood-control system in China. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, , s1: Wang, C. Investigation on landscape design for urban river.
Song, Z. Thinking of integrated management of urban rivers in China. Advances in Water Science, , 13 3: Fang, L. Zhong, M. Research on urban flood control and waterlogged drainage safety of our country. Journal of Catastrophology, , 23 3: All Rights Reserved. Log In. Paper Titles. Research on the Challenges and Solutions of Urban Article Preview. Applied Mechanics and Materials Volumes Main Theme: Edited by: Online since: September Add to Cart. However, there have been two important federal laws enacted that drive nationwide efforts with respect to flood-risk reduction.
The original FCA authorized federal engagement in flood-risk reduction, which has predominantly occurred through development of large infrastructure. It also established a flood insurance program to provide incentives for communities that adopted land-use regulations and prohibited future construction below the year flood elevation. But although NFIP discourages floodplain development, local governments ultimately have authority for land-use regulations.
Thus, the historical lack of an articulated and coordinated flood-governance structure has led to a complicated blending of hierarchical, monocentric governance 2 at the federal level with more distributed polycentric governance at the regional and local levels. This uncoordinated blending of flood-risk governance has produced significant conflicts across different levels of authority.
A key example: As a result, FEMA has injected itself into the role of supervising and restricting activities within the floodplain in some locations where habitats for threatened and endangered animals have been affected e. Opposing lawsuits have been filed on behalf of local land-use authorities, such as those currently underway in Oregon, to challenge the new NFIP requirements and FEMA authority for being overly restrictive.
The US approach to flood-risk governance also appears to have restricted the types of flood-management activities that occur, potentially reducing the effectiveness that flood-management actions could have in lowering flood risk. Experts 3 have called for reducing reliance on the centralized, structural approaches e. For example, by fostering floodplain development, levees lead to increased losses when levees fail or floods reach elevations higher than levee-crown elevations 4.
Furthermore, structural measures tend to be inflexible to changing conditions. For example, reservoir operations are primarily driven by congressionally authorized water-control diagrams that are difficult to modify, and raising the height of levees to increase protection for an exposed community is problematic because it results in raising flood elevations in another location.
Thus, with the aging 5 and failure Fig. Nonstructural measures tend to be local-scale actions that emphasize reducing exposure of the public to floods via behavioral adaptations e.
Although nonstructural practices are being utilized in some locations across the United States, their effectiveness and widespread application have been limited by population growth, socioeconomics, and governance 8 , as illustrated by the litigation related to the NFIP.
Furthermore, distributing some flood-risk responsibility to the public will require reshaping of public perceptions and motivations. However, the burden of communicating and socializing risk regarding flood infrastructure to increase awareness is a challenging and humbling task, particularly because it commonly falls to the engineers who design and operate flood infrastructure There are major barriers to making the transition toward more sustainable and effective flood management, none of which are problems that engineers alone can solve.
First, the politicization of flood-risk governance has crippled the ability of the United States to protect the public from floods. As effectively argued by Wilke 12 , the debate on less versus more government distracts decisionmakers from the critical task of making governance more efficient and effective.
The more meaningful question is how to distribute authority and resources for planning, mitigating, and recovering from floods among individuals and institutions. Furthermore, revoking sound and cost-effective policies, including those that require stricter building standards when rebuilding publicly funded structures in flood zones for example, Executive Order , revoked August , is not going to protect the people or economy of the United States over the long term.
The shaping of perceptions and institutions by existing infrastructure, such as the overconfidence of floodplain residents behind aging and uncertified levees, has been exceptionally effective. The essential task of reshaping those perceptions and institutions will be extremely difficult. The most effective flood-management solutions i. For example, in heavily leveed rivers, it can be more cost effective for managers to reduce the flood stage by reconnecting and expanding the floodplain rather than raising levees and constructing additional dams.
Restoring the connectivity of floodplains may also allow upstream reservoirs to remain at a higher elevation during the flood season, thus increasing the available water supply and hedging against water scarcity. However, reconnecting floodplains requires making the politically and economically difficult task of relocating residents who currently live in flood-prone areas. The high rate of repetitive loss claims in the NFIP demonstrates the lack of political willpower to even discourage rebuilding in areas known to flood, let alone the resettling of exposed populations.
And oftentimes the public is unwilling to acknowledge its own role in reducing their flood risk. Third, engineers and social scientists need to work together to expand the research agenda on the sociological, economic, and geopolitical elements of floods and flood-risk management.
For example, studies are needed to investigate and overcome the social and political barriers that hamper wider adoption of nonstructural flood management.
In addition, collaborations between engineers and lawyers could contribute to identifying where flexibilities e. Another area ripe for integrative research is in the design of policies that advance public risk perception. Researchers have demonstrated that the public fails to appropriately understand risk, commonly rounding low probabilities e. This assumption produces significant loss of life and property for two key reasons. Second, landscape changes e.
Rather than applying a binary flood boundary, which is subject to large uncertainties, penalties e. As the life and auto insurance industries have demonstrated, the public is capable of understanding more nuanced conceptualization of risk and of taking responsibility for actions e.
The timing is ripe for such a transition. However, making the transition will be difficult. The engineering design standards e. An effective flood-risk governance framework will need to acknowledge the concepts of complexity, uncertainty, and resilience 12 in balancing safety and cost for flood-risk reduction, but integrating these concepts will require new design, operational, political, and cultural norms.
The literature and engineering practice already offer some guidance on how flood management can be more effective as hydrology and populations change and as infrastructure age. Such guidance includes choosing design standards e. Initial steps in this transition are the execution and communication of bold and strategic experiments e.
The most important resources in such a transition will be leadership across all levels of government, technical expertise, and financial capital.
If we are to manage floods in ways that are effective, sustainable, and equitable, major modifications to national flood-risk governance policy in the United States are deeply needed.
The new policy needs to include and go beyond simply raising awareness of flood risk. In addition to clearly articulating the authorities and allocating appropriate resources for distributing flood risk, flood governance will need to emphasize engaging the public in behavioral adaptation aimed at reducing exposure and vulnerability to floods.
A fundamental example of such a change is revision of the water- and land-use laws across the nation, which will require enormous political willpower, the likes of which is currently underway in the state of California In addition, a new policy should integrate more recent analytical approaches for the evaluation of risks and benefits associated with a broader range of flood-mitigation practices Finally, all adaptations need to acknowledge that exposure and vulnerability to flooding have a social-justice dimension, whereby mobility, native language, and economic and educational status, among other factors, have an impact on the ability of the public to manage our individual flood risk.
The author declares no conflict of interest. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this work are those of the authors and have not been endorsed by the National Academy of Sciences. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Published online Apr Desiree Tullos a, 1. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
Copyright notice. Published under the PNAS license. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Open in a separate window. Flood Governance Flood losses can include loss of life, damage to infrastructure and agriculture, interruptions to business and education, and impacts on human health and welfare. A New Kind of Flood Governance There are major barriers to making the transition toward more sustainable and effective flood management, none of which are problems that engineers alone can solve.
RESEARCH PAPER ON FLOOD WATER CONTROL FACILITIES
Currently, the development of flood control system of Nanjing City has been entering a new critical phase, facing some great Research on the Challenges and Solutions of Urban Flood Control System of Nanjing City. 58 Related Articles. This interplay can be significantly influenced by the flood control strategy adopted by a society, i.e., But despite the growing interest in flood resilience, little research has been done on the . This paper proceeds as follows. RESEARCH PAPER ON FLOOD WATER CONTROL FACILITIES - Download as Word Doc .doc), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online.