Harvard essay format is one of the most widely used formats for essay writing by scholars and professors around the world. Thus your essay's structure is necessarily unique to the main claim you're making . Although there are guidelines for constructing certain classic essay types (e.g. Strategies for Essay Writing Do a Close Reading · Overview of the Academic Essay · Essay Structure · Developing a Thesis Harvard Guide to Using Sources .
harvard essay guidelines
Including the page numbers of a reference will help readers trace your sources. This is particularly important for quotations and for paraphrasing specific paragraphs in the texts: Lawrence , p. If you want to include text from a published work in your essay then the sentence s must be included within quotation marks, and may be introduced by such phrases as: You may come across a summary of another author's work in the source you are reading, which you would like to make reference to in your own piece of work, this is called secondary referencing.
A direct in-text reference: Research recently carried out in the Greater Manchester area by Brown cited in Bassett, , p. When using selected information from a table or diagram, or reproducing an entire table or diagram, a reference must be made to the source. In the following example, information is from a table found on p of the book Management in the media: The original source of the data used in the table in Brown's book was the National Statistics Office, If you quote from this table in the text of your essay - treat as secondary referencing: Brown, R.
Management in the media: FT Prentice Hall. To cite material found on a website, you need to identify who is responsible for producing it - the authorship. This may be a named individual or a corporate author an organisation, institution or company.
If you cannot see a named author, look for a corporate author. The date for a website may not be obvious. Look around the page if it is not in the headline information - it might be at the bottom in the copyright statement. In this example the authorship would be Mundasad and the date An in-text reference for the above examples would read: Recent research on meningitis Mundasad, has shown Different types of publication require different amounts of information but there are certain common elements such as authorship, year of publication and title, which should be included.
The Harvard style lays down standards for the order and content of information in the reference. Some variations of presentation are acceptable provided that they are used consistently.
All items should be listed alphabetically by author or authorship, regardless of the format, whether books, websites or journal articles etc. Where there are several works from one author or source they should by listed together, in date order, with the earliest work listed first. Use the title page, not the book cover, for the reference details. Only include the edition where it is not the first. A book with no edition statement is most commonly a first edition.
The required elements for a book reference are: Author, Initials. Title of book. Reference where 1st edition Baron, D. Business and the organisation. Redman, P. Good essay writing: Open University in assoc. Organisations have been found to differ Baron, when there is Leading social scientists such as Redman have noted Use an and to link the last two multiple authors.
Some documents have very large numbers of authors, particularly in certain disciplines. There may be a very large numbers of authors and a wish not to include them all in a reference list. In these cases it is recommended that advice from the Faculty is sought, to establish if it is permitted to cite only a reduced number. The required elements for a reference are: Authors, Initials. Reference Adams, R. The World Health Organisation, its history and impact.
Barker, R. Narrative analysis. Indiana University Press. Carter, B. Research Methods. Cambridge University Press. Leading organisations concerned with health Adams, Weiss and Coatie, have proved that A new theory Barker, Kirk and Munday, has challenged traditional thinking Effective methods used to researching crowdsourcing Carter, et al. For books which are edited give the editor s surname s and initials, followed by ed.
Keene, E. Natural language. University of Cambridge Press. Silverman, D. The active interview. Beverly Hills, CA: Allouche, Jose. Corporate social resposibility, Volume 1: Palgrave Macmillan. For chapters of edited books the required elements for a reference are: Chapter author s surname s and initials.
Title of chapter followed by In: Book editor s initials first followed by surnames with ed. Year of book. Place of publication: Chapter number or first and last page numbers followed by full-stop. References Samson, C. Problems of information studies in history. Stone, ed. Humanities information research. Where there are several works by one author and published in the same year they should be differentiated by adding a lower case letter after the date.
Remember that this must also be consistent with the citations in the text For multiple works the required elements for a reference are: Author, Initals. Soros, G. The road to serfdom. University of Chicago Press. Beyond the road to serfdom. For works which have been translated the reference should include details of the translator, the suggested elements for such references being: Translated from language by name of translator, initials first, then surname Place of publication: Canetti, E.
The voices of Marrakesh: Translated from German by J. San Francisco: Kant, I. Fundamental principles of the metaphysic of morals. Translated by T. New York: Prometheus Books. Keynes, J. The general theory of employment, interest, and money. Reprint Palgrave Macmillian. Leakey, R. The illustrated origin of species.
Reprint of On the Origin of species by Charles Darwin, Abridged and introduced by Richard E. Faber and Faber. E-books available through the University Library For e-books accessed through a password protected database from the University Library the required elements for a reference are: Followed by Available through: Fishman, R.
The rise and fall of suburbia. Castle Press. Available through: Carlsen, J. Global wine tourism. CABI Pub. Wood, P. Global warming and the oceans. Cookson, J. Leisure and the tourist. ABS Publishers. Available at: Patterson, M. Lost places in dreams. For a pdf version of, for example, a Government publication or similar which is freely available: Authorship, Year. Title of documents. Followed by Available at: Bank of England, Inflation Report.
Department of Health, Health inequalities: Department of Health. Use these guidelines for print articles, those you get through InterLibrary Loan, and online articles that have a print equivalent. Title of article. Boughton, J. The Bretton Woods proposal: Political Science Quarterly , 42 6 , p. Cox, C. What health care assistants know about clean hands. Nursing Times , Spring Issue, pp. Reference an e-journal article as print if it is also available in a print version of the journal. This is usually the case where you access an article in pdf format and it uses sequential journal page numbers.
Perry, C. Nursing Times , 97 22 , pp. For articles accessed through a password protected database from the University Library: Political Science Quarterly , [e-journal] 42 6. Katchamart, W. Methotrexate monotherapy versus methotrexate combination therapy with non-biologic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs for rheumatoid arthritis. Currie, G. Long acting? BMJ, [e-journal] Early view article: Articles from web based magazines or journals, including Open Access articles found in institutional repositories.
Full Title of Journal or Magazine , [online] Available at: Kipper, D. Japan's new dawn. Popular Science and Technology , [online] Available at: The DOI is a permanent identifier and replaces a permanent web address for online articles.
These can appear with the preface http: Not all articles are assigned a DOI. If an article does not have a DOI, use one of the other e-journal article formats. Boon, S. A phenomenographic study of English faculty's conceptions of information literacy. Journal of Documentation , [e-journal] 63 2 , pp. Goodall, A. Should top universities be led by top researchers and are they?: A citations analysis.
Journal of Documentation , [e-journal] 62 3 , pp. Ada, A. A Lifetime of Learning to Teach. Chen, S. Balancing knowing and not-knowing: For a journal abstract from a database where you have been unable to access the full article, the required elements for a reference are: Abstract only.
Source [Accessed date]. For newspaper articles the required elements for a reference are: Title of article or column header. Full Title of Newspaper , Day and month before page numbers and column line. Slapper, G. Corporate manslaughter: The Times , 3 Sep. Times, For newspaper articles found in online newspapers, the required elements for a reference are: Author or corporate author, Year.
Title of document or page. Name of newspaper, [type of medium] additional date information. Chittenden, M. Targetitis ails NHS. Times Online , [online] 1 June. Coney, J. Daily Mail , [online] Last updated 9. Short title with key words capitalized , which includes the year followed by the chapter number in brackets. Higher Education Act Road Transport Lighting Act Statutory Instrument Short title with key words capitalized.
Public Offers of Securities Regulations The recent code of practice Mental Capacity Act noted that staff should Mental Health Act , Code of Practice, When discussing the code of practice linked to a professional organisation cite the professional organisation.
MNC NMC, The code: Standards of conduct, performance and ethics for nurses and midwives. Authorship, which may be part of the title, Year. Title, in italics if a separate element, offically assigned number such as a Command number as it is on the document, within brackets.
Royal Commission on civil liability and compensation for personal injury, Pearson Report Cmnd. Select Committee on nationalised industries , Consumers and the nationalised industries: House of Commons, Home Affairs Committee, The Work of the Border Force. Hansard, Vol , col.
It is recommended that you follow accepted legal citation, which is not part of the Harvard system. For this the required elements for a reference are: Jones v Lipman  1 WLR In the recent case of R v White John Henry , the defence noted Corporate author, Year.
Full title of annual report , Place of Publication: The way forward, Annual report , London: Annual report If you have used material from archives or special collections, the required elements for a reference are: Title of document.
Brown, P. An address to the Farmer. Holdbury Library. Corporate author, Year of Publication. Identifying letters and numbers and full title of Standard , Place of publication: British Standards Institution, BS Milton Keynes: International Standards Office, ISO - 2 Information and documentation: Bibliographical references: Electronic documents.
Identifying letters and numbers and full title of Standard [online]. Place of publication if available: BS EN Test methods. Racking strength and stiffness of timber frame wall panels. Corporate Authority, Year of Publication.
Full title of regulation and edition. This example is for an Online version from CIS: Building Regulations, Building Regulations Approved Documents L1A: Conservation of fuel and power in new dwellings edition incorporating amendments for use in England. Construction Information Service. Inventor name, Initials. Patent number status, if an application. Graham, C. Tableting sugar and compositions containing it. Leonard, Y. Tin can manufacture and method of sealing. The required elements for a conference report are: Full title of conference report.
Location, Date. Seoul, Republic of Korea, May United Nations. Brown, J. Evaluating surveys of transparent governance. Full title of report. National service framework for older people.
Coulter, A. Making shared decision-making a reality: The King's Fund. Mintel, FAME, Stock Profile for Tesco, Passport, New approaches to functional coffee. Market size: Hot Drinks, world data. Title of dissertation. Official name of University. Richmond, J. Customer expectations in the world of electronic banking: Anglia Ruskin University. Fisher, C. The legacy of leadership - a study of leadership influence within a single organisation.
University of Sheffield. Following EU conventions, examples of various EU documents are given below: The name of the Institution where the document originates e. It is important to check with the lecturer who has given the lecture that they are in agreement with course material being included in any Reference List. If they are in agreement, and if it is not a publicly available document, it is important to provide a copy in the Appendix of your work.
The citation to the course material in your Reference List should then also refer to the Appendix. It would also be advisable to follow up any sources mentioned in your lecture and read these for yourself. Title of item, Module Code Module title. HE Institution, unpublished. Williams, B. Guide to project management, BDS Management. Anglia Ruskin University, unpublished.
See appendix X. When reviewing a number of different plays it is essential to cite the title of the plays. If reviewing one play for example Twelfth Night , it is not necessary to repeat the title in your citations. Published plays may contain line numbers, particularly in classic texts such as Shakespeare.
If they exist it is good practice to include the line number. Act and Scene numbers must always be included. Classic plays are available in edited editions and the editor's name should be included with your reference. Title of play. Edited by name of editor, initials first, then surname. Shakespeare, W. Twelfth Night. Edited by R. Warren and T. Much speculation has occurred when Malvolio imagines he might marry Olivia, "there is example for't; the Lady of the Strachy married the yeoman of the wardrobe" Shakespeare, , 2.
The required elements for a poem are: Poem author s surname s and initials. Title of poem. First and last page numbers followed by full-stop. Hughes, T. Supposedly, a Hersey professor of anatomy at Harvard University - Edward Laurens Mark - was the first one to use an author-date citation in parentheses. Other scholars approved of this formatting approach and that is how the style we have today appeared.
It was associated with biology for a long time and used in this field of knowledge until it became popular in humanities as well. Now you can see many papers in history, sociology, and geography.
To put it shortly, this style of formatting helps to systematize the academic papers asking its authors to follow specific guidelines. You can find a big amount of ways of citing a source. Harvard suggests you use parentheses for that. It provides you with instructions in terms of in-text citations and reference lists. Let's try to dig deeper and find out what are those rules and which ones of them should you follow to score high on your paper.
It is worth noting some of the peculiarities Harvard citation style has and other styles don't. All you need to write is a surname and the first initial.
It does not seem like a major point but it is important. Every comma, full stop, and colon matters when it comes to referencing. Secondly, there is a limit to the references cited in your work. You do not have to include the further reading materials for the readers to explore the topic of discussion.
The best way to make sure you are doing everything right is to visit the official reputable websites and check the list of requirements every style has. Meanwhile, here are some more tips on formatting your paper:.
We encourage you to be boring and choose Times New Roman for your paper. It is a safe choice and the scientific community will not be shocked by your decision to use a new font. Your paper should be double-spaced, no surprises here. Do not forget to insert a header with the title of your paper.
Make sure you know if the title page should be numbered or not whether you have additional instructions from your instructor or not.
The page with citations should be called "References". As to the title page, check if the title of your paper is halfway down the page. Skip three lines, then put your name. Then, skip four lines more and write the name of your course and the professor's name in the next line. The date will be the last piece of information on this page. While writing a research paper, thesis or dissertation, you will definitely need the help of more experienced scholars to support your own ideas.
Citing them is a crucial part of the writing process. Students often struggle with finding the correct sentence structure and formatting for different kinds of in-text citations and references. Therefore, you can use these examples as guidelines to make the writing process less stressful.
Harvard style differs from the other formatting approaches and you need to know its specific requirements.
How to Write the Harvard University Supplemental Essays 2018-2019
Harvard Formatting and Style Guide. Cover Page. Harvard formatting requires a very specific title page. About halfway down the page is the title of the paper. Harvard Writing Style Format. A Harvard essay format is based on the Harvard style of writing, a generic form that uses the author/date style of writing within the . Learn to format your paper and cite your sources in MLA, APA, Chicago, and other styles. Tips for Citing Sources; What is Harvard Style?.