Article shared by. Here is your Essay on Importance of Electricity specially written for School and College Students in Hindi Language: A (). Home ››. Mar 8, Electricity is one of the most important blessings that science has given to mankind. It has also become a part of modern life and one cannot. Save Water and Electricity Essay for Class 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 and Essay on Importance of Saving Water and Electricity – Essay 2 ( words).
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When a charge is placed in a location with a non-zero electric field, a force will act on it. The magnitude of this force is given by Coulomb's law. Thus, if that charge were to move, the electric field would be doing work on the electric charge. Thus we can speak of electric potential at a certain point in space, which is equal to the work done by an external agent in carrying a unit of positive charge from an arbitrarily chosen reference point to that point without any acceleration and is typically measured in volts.
Electrical phenomena have been studied since antiquity, though progress in theoretical understanding remained slow until the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Even then, practical applications for electricity were few, and it would not be until the late nineteenth century that electrical engineers were able to put it to industrial and residential use. The rapid expansion in electrical technology at this time transformed industry and society, becoming a driving force for the Second Industrial Revolution.
Electricity's extraordinary versatility means it can be put to an almost limitless set of applications which include transport , heating , lighting , communications , and computation. Electrical power is now the backbone of modern industrial society. Long before any knowledge of electricity existed, people were aware of shocks from electric fish.
Ancient Egyptian texts dating from BCE referred to these fish as the "Thunderer of the Nile ", and described them as the "protectors" of all other fish. Electric fish were again reported millennia later by ancient Greek , Roman and Arabic naturalists and physicians. Ancient cultures around the Mediterranean knew that certain objects, such as rods of amber , could be rubbed with cat's fur to attract light objects like feathers.
Thales of Miletus made a series of observations on static electricity around BCE, from which he believed that friction rendered amber magnetic , in contrast to minerals such as magnetite , which needed no rubbing.
According to a controversial theory, the Parthians may have had knowledge of electroplating , based on the discovery of the Baghdad Battery , which resembles a galvanic cell , though it is uncertain whether the artifact was electrical in nature.
Electricity would remain little more than an intellectual curiosity for millennia until , when the English scientist William Gilbert wrote De Magnete , in which he made a careful study of electricity and magnetism, distinguishing the lodestone effect from static electricity produced by rubbing amber.
In June he is reputed to have attached a metal key to the bottom of a dampened kite string and flown the kite in a storm-threatened sky.
In , Luigi Galvani published his discovery of bioelectromagnetics , demonstrating that electricity was the medium by which neurons passed signals to the muscles. Michael Faraday invented the electric motor in , and Georg Ohm mathematically analysed the electrical circuit in While the early 19th century had seen rapid progress in electrical science, the late 19th century would see the greatest progress in electrical engineering. In , Heinrich Hertz : In , Albert Einstein published a paper that explained experimental data from the photoelectric effect as being the result of light energy being carried in discrete quantized packets, energising electrons.
This discovery led to the quantum revolution. Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in for "his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect". The first solid-state device was the " cat's-whisker detector " first used in the s in radio receivers.
A whisker-like wire is placed lightly in contact with a solid crystal such as a germanium crystal to detect a radio signal by the contact junction effect. Current flow can be understood in two forms: These charges and holes are understood in terms of quantum physics. The building material is most often a crystalline semiconductor. The solid-state device came into its own with the invention of the transistor in Common solid-state devices include transistors , microprocessor chips, and RAM.
A specialized type of RAM called flash RAM is used in USB flash drives and more recently, solid-state drives to replace mechanically rotating magnetic disc hard disk drives. Solid state devices became prevalent in the s and the s, during the transition from vacuum tubes to semiconductor diodes , transistors , integrated circuit IC and the light-emitting diode LED. The presence of charge gives rise to an electrostatic force: If a similar ball is charged by the same glass rod, it is found to repel the first: Two balls that are charged with a rubbed amber rod also repel each other.
However, if one ball is charged by the glass rod, and the other by an amber rod, the two balls are found to attract each other. These phenomena were investigated in the late eighteenth century by Charles-Augustin de Coulomb , who deduced that charge manifests itself in two opposing forms. This discovery led to the well-known axiom: The force acts on the charged particles themselves, hence charge has a tendency to spread itself as evenly as possible over a conducting surface.
The magnitude of the electromagnetic force, whether attractive or repulsive, is given by Coulomb's law , which relates the force to the product of the charges and has an inverse-square relation to the distance between them.
Study has shown that the origin of charge is from certain types of subatomic particles which have the property of electric charge. Electric charge gives rise to and interacts with the electromagnetic force , one of the four fundamental forces of nature. The most familiar carriers of electrical charge are the electron and proton. Experiment has shown charge to be a conserved quantity , that is, the net charge within an electrically isolated system will always remain constant regardless of any changes taking place within that system.
The charge on electrons and protons is opposite in sign, hence an amount of charge may be expressed as being either negative or positive. By convention, the charge carried by electrons is deemed negative, and that by protons positive, a custom that originated with the work of Benjamin Franklin. Charge is possessed not just by matter , but also by antimatter , each antiparticle bearing an equal and opposite charge to its corresponding particle. Charge can be measured by a number of means, an early instrument being the gold-leaf electroscope , which although still in use for classroom demonstrations, has been superseded by the electronic electrometer.
The movement of electric charge is known as an electric current , the intensity of which is usually measured in amperes. Current can consist of any moving charged particles; most commonly these are electrons, but any charge in motion constitutes a current. Electric current can flow through some things, electrical conductors , but will not flow through an electrical insulator.
By historical convention, a positive current is defined as having the same direction of flow as any positive charge it contains, or to flow from the most positive part of a circuit to the most negative part. Current defined in this manner is called conventional current. The motion of negatively charged electrons around an electric circuit , one of the most familiar forms of current, is thus deemed positive in the opposite direction to that of the electrons.
The positive-to-negative convention is widely used to simplify this situation. The process by which electric current passes through a material is termed electrical conduction , and its nature varies with that of the charged particles and the material through which they are travelling.
Examples of electric currents include metallic conduction, where electrons flow through a conductor such as metal, and electrolysis , where ions charged atoms flow through liquids, or through plasmas such as electrical sparks. While the particles themselves can move quite slowly, sometimes with an average drift velocity only fractions of a millimetre per second, : Current causes several observable effects, which historically were the means of recognising its presence.
That water could be decomposed by the current from a voltaic pile was discovered by Nicholson and Carlisle in , a process now known as electrolysis. Their work was greatly expanded upon by Michael Faraday in Current through a resistance causes localised heating, an effect James Prescott Joule studied mathematically in The level of electromagnetic emissions generated by electric arcing is high enough to produce electromagnetic interference , which can be detrimental to the workings of adjacent equipment.
In engineering or household applications, current is often described as being either direct current DC or alternating current AC. These terms refer to how the current varies in time. Direct current, as produced by example from a battery and required by most electronic devices, is a unidirectional flow from the positive part of a circuit to the negative. Alternating current is any current that reverses direction repeatedly; almost always this takes the form of a sine wave.
The time-averaged value of an alternating current is zero, but it delivers energy in first one direction, and then the reverse. Alternating current is affected by electrical properties that are not observed under steady state direct current, such as inductance and capacitance. The concept of the electric field was introduced by Michael Faraday. An electric field is created by a charged body in the space that surrounds it, and results in a force exerted on any other charges placed within the field.
The electric field acts between two charges in a similar manner to the way that the gravitational field acts between two masses , and like it, extends towards infinity and shows an inverse square relationship with distance. Gravity always acts in attraction, drawing two masses together, while the electric field can result in either attraction or repulsion. Since large bodies such as planets generally carry no net charge, the electric field at a distance is usually zero.
Thus gravity is the dominant force at distance in the universe, despite being much weaker. An electric field generally varies in space,  and its strength at any one point is defined as the force per unit charge that would be felt by a stationary, negligible charge if placed at that point.
As the electric field is defined in terms of force , and force is a vector , so it follows that an electric field is also a vector, having both magnitude and direction. Specifically, it is a vector field. The study of electric fields created by stationary charges is called electrostatics.
The field may be visualised by a set of imaginary lines whose direction at any point is the same as that of the field. This concept was introduced by Faraday,  whose term ' lines of force ' still sometimes sees use.
The field lines are the paths that a point positive charge would seek to make as it was forced to move within the field; they are however an imaginary concept with no physical existence, and the field permeates all the intervening space between the lines. A hollow conducting body carries all its charge on its outer surface. The field is therefore zero at all places inside the body.
The principles of electrostatics are important when designing items of high-voltage equipment. There is a finite limit to the electric field strength that may be withstood by any medium. Beyond this point, electrical breakdown occurs and an electric arc causes flashover between the charged parts.
The field strength is greatly affected by nearby conducting objects, and it is particularly intense when it is forced to curve around sharply pointed objects. This principle is exploited in the lightning conductor , the sharp spike of which acts to encourage the lightning stroke to develop there, rather than to the building it serves to protect : The concept of electric potential is closely linked to that of the electric field.
A small charge placed within an electric field experiences a force, and to have brought that charge to that point against the force requires work. The electric potential at any point is defined as the energy required to bring a unit test charge from an infinite distance slowly to that point.
It is usually measured in volts , and one volt is the potential for which one joule of work must be expended to bring a charge of one coulomb from infinity. An electric field has the special property that it is conservative , which means that the path taken by the test charge is irrelevant: For practical purposes, it is useful to define a common reference point to which potentials may be expressed and compared.
While this could be at infinity, a much more useful reference is the Earth itself, which is assumed to be at the same potential everywhere. This reference point naturally takes the name earth or ground. Earth is assumed to be an infinite source of equal amounts of positive and negative charge, and is therefore electrically uncharged—and unchargeable.
Electric potential is a scalar quantity , that is, it has only magnitude and not direction. It may be viewed as analogous to height: The equipotentials cross all lines of force at right angles.
They must also lie parallel to a conductor 's surface, otherwise this would produce a force that will move the charge carriers to even the potential of the surface.
The electric field was formally defined as the force exerted per unit charge, but the concept of potential allows for a more useful and equivalent definition: Moreover, the interaction seemed different from gravitational and electrostatic forces, the two forces of nature then known.
The force on the compass needle did not direct it to or away from the current-carrying wire, but acted at right angles to it. This relationship between magnetic fields and currents is extremely important, for it led to Michael Faraday's invention of the electric motor in Faraday's homopolar motor consisted of a permanent magnet sitting in a pool of mercury.
A current was allowed through a wire suspended from a pivot above the magnet and dipped into the mercury. The magnet exerted a tangential force on the wire, making it circle around the magnet for as long as the current was maintained. Experimentation by Faraday in revealed that a wire moving perpendicular to a magnetic field developed a potential difference between its ends.
Further analysis of this process, known as electromagnetic induction , enabled him to state the principle, now known as Faraday's law of induction , that the potential difference induced in a closed circuit is proportional to the rate of change of magnetic flux through the loop. Exploitation of this discovery enabled him to invent the first electrical generator in , in which he converted the mechanical energy of a rotating copper disc to electrical energy.
The ability of chemical reactions to produce electricity, and conversely the ability of electricity to drive chemical reactions has a wide array of uses.
Electrochemistry has always been an important part of electricity. From the initial invention of the Voltaic pile, electrochemical cells have evolved into the many different types of batteries, electroplating and electrolysis cells.
Aluminium is produced in vast quantities this way, and many portable devices are electrically powered using rechargeable cells. An electric circuit is an interconnection of electric components such that electric charge is made to flow along a closed path a circuit , usually to perform some useful task. The components in an electric circuit can take many forms, which can include elements such as resistors , capacitors , switches , transformers and electronics.
Electronic circuits contain active components , usually semiconductors , and typically exhibit non-linear behaviour, requiring complex analysis. The simplest electric components are those that are termed passive and linear: The resistor is perhaps the simplest of passive circuit elements: The resistance is a consequence of the motion of charge through a conductor: Ohm's law is a basic law of circuit theory , stating that the current passing through a resistance is directly proportional to the potential difference across it.
The resistance of most materials is relatively constant over a range of temperatures and currents; materials under these conditions are known as 'ohmic'. The capacitor is a development of the Leyden jar and is a device that can store charge, and thereby storing electrical energy in the resulting field.
It consists of two conducting plates separated by a thin insulating dielectric layer; in practice, thin metal foils are coiled together, increasing the surface area per unit volume and therefore the capacitance.
The unit of capacitance is the farad , named after Michael Faraday , and given the symbol F: A capacitor connected to a voltage supply initially causes a current as it accumulates charge; this current will however decay in time as the capacitor fills, eventually falling to zero. A capacitor will therefore not permit a steady state current, but instead blocks it.
The inductor is a conductor, usually a coil of wire, that stores energy in a magnetic field in response to the current through it. When the current changes, the magnetic field does too, inducing a voltage between the ends of the conductor. The induced voltage is proportional to the time rate of change of the current. The constant of proportionality is termed the inductance. The unit of inductance is the henry , named after Joseph Henry , a contemporary of Faraday.
One henry is the inductance that will induce a potential difference of one volt if the current through it changes at a rate of one ampere per second. The inductor's behaviour is in some regards converse to that of the capacitor: Electric power is the rate at which electric energy is transferred by an electric circuit.
The SI unit of power is the watt , one joule per second. Willard as the middle of the need for teachers to review it within three months of empty speech the corner of the. Lessons could also be helpful to other institutions. There are no easy matter. Researchers took the time of the impetus for change within engineering education, when a student has personal familiarity with metric and customary systems for example.
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