How to Reference Essays. When you begin writing a research essay, you must take into account the format of your writing and reference pages. Why reference? When you are writing an essay, report, dissertation or any other form of academic writing, your own thoughts and ideas inevitably build on those. References are often used to support information discussed in essays. References help back up arguments, prove major points and make the.
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Title of Book. City published: Publisher Name, Year published. Source Medium. An MLA website citation looks like the following. If there's no author listed, begin citation with the name of the page: Last name, first name.
Date published. Date accessed. An MLA scholarly article citation looks like the following: Last name, First name. Issue Year: Write the title of the main work book, magazine, journal, website, etc. Chapter or article titles should be in quotation marks.
Alphabetize the list. Place your list of references in order alphabetically by the authors' last names. Alphabetize by the first letter that appears in the entry, whether it has an author name or not. Format the Works Cited page. Double-space your document, and title this list of citations "Works Cited. Each entry should have hanging indent, meaning all lines below the first line are indented by half an inch. Make sure there is a period after each section of the citations. A period should always end the citation.
Method 2. APA requires citations inside parentheses in the text of an essay, compiling them in an alphabetical References list at the end of a document. While you're writing an essay, it's important to cite information so that you avoid plagiarism a form of cheating. Place a parenthetical citation at the end of every sentence or group of sentences if you're using the same source for multiple consecutive sentences containing information you didn't know before doing research.
An in-text citation using APA will simply have the author last name or title if no author followed by the year it was published.
No comma between name and year. Richards Richards is the author last name, and is the year. If you have an author name or title if no author but no page number, simply use author last name or title. This is common when citing websites. APA document formatting is very important. APA papers are divided up into 4 sections: Write down copyright information as you go for every piece of research you glean from.
Write it down for every source you look at with a note to jog your memory--you'll be surprised how many ideas you start to paraphrase, unable to remember where you got that idea. To form APA reference page citations, you will need such information as author name s , date published, website URL, date you accessed the website, title of work, and so on. Organize the list. The list of references should be alphabetized and set to hanging indent, just like MLA style format.
For example, the format for an APA reference of a scholarly journal article is as follows: Author last name, First initial. Year published. Article or chapter title. Journal or book title, Issue number , page number range. Title of Book: Capital letter also for subtitle. The format for an APA website reference looks like: Author, A. Title of article. In Title of webpage or larger document or book chapter or section number.
Retrieved from URL address. Format the page. Double-space your document, and title the references page "References" at the top-center of the page. Put the page number all the way to the right, and a shortened version of the title of your paper all the way to the left in all capital letters.
Only capitalize the first word of a journal article title, unless the title contains a proper noun called sentence case. Also look at the text itself to find a model for parenthetical referencing or footnotes. Recent Posts Understanding my markers feedback Marking: Professionalisation A simple guide to writing a first-class essay Not an apprenticeship: Our top 10 essay referencing tips. Familiarise yourself Know when Be thorough Referencing is essential for all higher-level academic work because it allows an interested reader to trace the origin of ideas and relevant external material.
Be consistent Determine a system and stick to it to ensure full clarity. Is the text a translation? Pay attention to authors and editors Edited volumes make up a huge part of many areas of academic literature. In your list of references you should tackle the problem, thus: Be specific Different essay referencing systems and different usage of material will require various levels of specificity, e.
Learn from the best The most useful tip of all: You may also like A simple guide to writing a first-class essay. A Survival Guide for College Students Department, Popville, Maine. Anonymous OR Anonymous Gumwad, G. Behavior patterns of mice. New York: Gumwad Huth, J.
Robinson, P. Scientific format and style: The CBE manual for authors, editors, and publishers. Cambridge University Press. Huth et al. Kuret, J. Adenohypophyseal hormones and related Kuret and Murad Citing References in the Body Intro and Discussion of the Paper Throughout the body of your paper primarily the Intro and Discussion , whenever you refer to outside sources of information, you must cite the sources from which you drew information.
Top of Page Standard Text Citation Formats There are exceptions among the various journals, but generally, in biological journals, the most frequent types of citations are shown in the following examples in red: Typically, only the last name of the author s and the year of publication are given,e. Your Literature Cited section will contain the complete reference, and the reader can look it up there. Notice that the reference to the book has a page number Gumwad This is to facilitate a reader's finding the reference in a long publication such as a book not done for journal articles.
The paper by Bugjuice is short, and if readers want to find the referenced information, they would not have as much trouble. For two author papers , give both authors' last names e.
Articles with more than two authors are cited by the first authors last name followed "and others" or "et al. When a book, paper, or article has no identifiable author , cite it as Anon.
Year, e. See Full Citation. If you want reference a paper found in another article , do so as follows: Driblick , in Oobleck A string of citations should be separated by semicolons, e.
Finally, you should note the placement of the period AFTER the parenthetical citation - the citation, too, is part of a sentence,e. Top of Page Personal Communications: However, the source is usually thanked in your Acknowledgments for their contribution.
Footnoting, although commonly done in books and other literary writing, is only rarely done in journal style papers.
Our top 10 essay referencing tips
University of California, Berkeley. Essay Structure and Citation Guidelines. What comprises a logically constructed essay? In general, good essays have a clear. Sample Essay. The following referencing is an essential part of academic writing and in the support – and only references can provide this required support. words (5 pages) Example Essay in Referencing these terms are often used interchangeably when discussing Harvard reference lists.