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appendix annotated bibliography

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  • Read chapter Appendix A - Annotated Bibliography: TRB's second Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP 2) Report S2-RRW: Encouraging Innovation. Read chapter Appendix A: Annotated Bibliography: Research Agenda: Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems for the Office of Building. Jan 2, Annotated Bibliography, Abstract, & Appendices Take a look at the Annotated Bibliography page of the APA Guide for more information.

    appendix annotated bibliography

    Werle, and O. Pipeline and Gas Journal, March , pp. An automated ultrasonic inspection system intelligent pig has been developed for the detection of transverse crack- like defects in pipelines. Solid Mechanics and Its Applica- tions: This paper describes the testing, development, and appli- cation of a novel assessment technology, which combines in-pipe GPR with digital scanning and evaluation technol- ogy DSET robotics to collect accurate information about the condition of the inside wall of concrete sewer pipes.

    A case study applying this innovative technology to sections of large-diameter PVC-lined concrete pipe in the City of Phoenix is presented. The study and adoption of innovative pipeline assessment methods provide better information to improve the decision-making process, thereby making economical decisions to optimize resources in more efficient ways. Condition Assessment of Water Distribution Pipes. The paper reviews utility practices in condition assessment of water distribution systems and compares the practices in leading utilities.

    It is indicated that the utilities could utilize available information better; however, they are impeded by lack of a standard procedure for recording data on leaks, breaks, and condition indicators. Advanced applications are required for the future.

    These might include real-time assessment, smart pigs to collect data, small chip sets, and automated pipe data registration. Allouche, and N. Pipe- line Scanning: Nonconductive buried pipe systems deteriorate over time under the action of various applied and environmental loads, chemical and microbiological induced corrosions, and differ- ential settlements.

    Defects hidden beneath encrustation, cement mortar lining, or a thermoplastic liner, as well as voids immediately outside of the pipe, are difficult to detect. This paper presents the theoretical foundation for the proposed method, followed by the results of a detailed numerical simulation. The numerical simulation employed custom-developed finite difference time domain FDTD code using a cylindrical coordinate system.

    Results from simulating the scanning of selected soil-pipe interface scenarios are presented. Experimental validation efforts of the proposed pipe scanning approach are also described. Bell, and A. Two providers of electromagnetic inspection services gen- erally using similar methods were evaluated by comparing their findings; both providers had surveyed the same seg- ment of the pipeline with differing results.

    Next, their results were directly compared with actually observed defects. This paper reviews the results and documents the predicted elec- tromagnetic results along with the observed physical condi- tion of the pipe sections and emphasizes the importance of proper records and the utilization of other impact factors that affect the performance.

    A majority of the concrete pressure pipe that has been manufactured and installed in the U. However, the mechanical behavior and failure mechanisms of prestressed concrete cylinder pipe PCCP and bar wrapped pipe are different. Nonetheless, three distinct assessment tools designed to detect broken wires or bars or leakage are useful for understanding the condition of these high-value assets.

    Case Study: City of Redding, CA. This study shows that sewer electroscanning is able to pin- point pipe defects that are large sources of collection system infiltration. These defects were not located using other inves- tigation methods. In a pilot study in Redding, California,. Taking Big Steps to Get Small. Computation technology for investigating failures at gas pipelines is presented. High accuracy mathematical models describing failures in gas pipelines from failure initiation to localizing its consequences are simultaneously created and numerically analyzed.

    Jin, and B. This paper presents propagation model and its experimental results to detect third-party damage on natural gas pipeline using acoustic detection method. The paper also involves an evaluation based on the modeled mathematical equations using the developed monitoring system. A research project at the Pennsylvania State University is carried out to determine if a multisensory method could be used for structural health monitoring of buried pipeline infrastructure system.

    This paper presents preliminary research efforts. Denkevich, S. Zolotarev, A. Kuntsevich, and S. The problem of image reconstruction from incomplete X-ray data, applied to in situ pipes wall thickness assessment, is considered.

    Main critical points are a limited number of X-ray projections, b limited angle for object observation by X-ray setup c presence of an isolation, d presence of a process liquid, and e X-ray scattering effect. Locating Leaks with Acoustic Technology. The project sought ways to use acoustic technology to pin- point leaks as small as 0.

    Because all experiments were conducted using water and on pipelines of size and material similar to those found in many water distribution systems, results also apply to these pipelines. Although leaks of 0. These technologies may be imple- mented from the conduit or boreholes according to site requirements. Horn, and K.

    Field Signature Method is a monitoring technique of both general and localized corrosion, erosion, and cracking in steel and metal structures, piping systems, and vessels. It is commercially available for a variety of applications, one being corrosion monitoring in buried pipelines. The MFL technique has been used to inspect operating pipelines and aboveground storage tanks. The technique has been adapted for the inspection of in-service distribu- tion pipelines. Detection and Prevention of External Corrosion in Zurich.

    Water Supply, Vol. These are accelerated by aggressive, partly water-saturated heterogeneous soils and. Coun- termeasures are comprised in the Zurich Pipe Network Strategy and in the long-term financial plan. Only the best pipe network material is good enough. Operations Forum, Vol.

    Louis Metropolitan Sewer District had sewers inspected for leaks with infrared technology. Miscellaneous Articles [] Automation Blessing: Self-Healing Pipes. InTech, Feb. Artificial platelets small pieces of polymeric or elastomeric material are inserted into the pipeline upstream and are carried by the flow of the fluid down the pipe toward the leak. The platelets vary in size from approximately 0. They can be used for locating the leaks as well. Smart pigs are highly sophisticated in-line inspection tools.

    Case, and B. A recent project in the Gulf of Mexico demonstrated that deepwater tiebacks can be cost-effectively inspected as part of routine pigging runs. The development and application of a new in-pipe leak detection system is described. The report contains detailed information on the complete- ness, complexity, and direction of GIS projects being imple- mented at nearly infrastructure-based organizations.

    The report includes some new information such as budget information for , project expenditure details, mainte- nance cycles, and so forth. The executive summary is avail- able online. Mapping the Underworld, a major U. Research Results Digest Transportation Research Board, Washington, D. This digest presents the key findings from a project on inte- grating geospatial technologies into the right-of-way data- management process.

    Geospatial Informa- tion Technologies for Asset Management. The peer exchange focused on moving spatial technology applications to the next level by managing change, data integration, and communication. Participants at the exchange identified research to address three areas of interest: The roles of national organizations in sharing best practices and in pro- moting standards and open data architectures were also explored. ROW issues commonly cause project delay and increased costs.

    The automation of ROW functions and development of data-integration models using existing technology, including geospatial appli- cations, are needed to enable multiple users to access the ROW information quickly and easily.

    The objectives of this research were to 1 identify the data elements needed to be included in a data model for a ROW information system that. National Underground Assets Group: The National Underground Assets Group is sponsoring the National Referencing Standards Project, Phase 1 of which aims to develop methodologies, standards, and best practices that address the short-term standardization needs to for capturing, recording, storing, and sharing underground asset information.

    This report makes a series of recommendations for a mandatory revised records code of practice, and a mandatory national standard high-level framework to enable effective deployment of the new code based on a user survey of a representative sample of utilities and highway authorities.

    Institution of Civil Engi- neers, This report gave recommendations as to what information should be kept by buried-assets owners. This report examines the status of buried services and calls for a standard approach to the way buried services are located and recorded.

    The recommendation is to establish a common framework with all geospatial data recorded using the digital national framework DNF system. The DNF is a tool that generates all coordinates using the same datum to provide a consistent method of identifying and reusing geo- graphical information. Common encoding standards enable users to reference their own geospatial content to a definitive geographic base. All information can then be recorded within the geographical information system GIS.

    This enables buried apparatus to be identified, cata- logued for example, listed as a water main , and referenced to the responsible body with emergency contact details. Location data can also be recorded to an absolute accuracy.

    This data then works with related datasets to ensure inter- operability, consistency, and internal integrity. The report also recommends that all new installations or replacements should be recorded three-dimensionally rather than two- dimensionally within three years also recommended in the Traffic Management Act , that a specialist dedicated cham- pion for the continued development of a common frame- work must be established, and that transferable recorded data should identify the top of the buried item.

    The ultimate solution to preventing damages to vital sub- surface infrastructure is to know where all the undergroundlines are positioned, so that excavation equipment does not hit the lines.

    That is easier said than done, but Greenwood Village, Colorado, has developed a workable solution that is now in the second year of implementation. This ASCE standard presents a credible system for classify- ing the quality of utility location information that is placed in design plans.

    The standard addresses issues such as how utility information can be obtained, what technologies are available to obtain that information, how that information can be conveyed to the information users, who should be responsible for typical collection and depiction tasks, what factors determine which utility quality level attribute to assign to data, and what the relative costs and benefits of the various quality levels are.

    Used as a reference or as part of a specification, the standard will assist engineers, project and utility owners, and constructors in developing strate- gies to reduce risk by improving the reliability of informa- tion on existing subsurface utilities in a defined manner.

    University of Birmingham, United Kingdom, March , 77 pp. This report aims to describe the various techniques available for buried infrastructure location and condition assessment. The Geospatial Technology Report This report presents a survey of organizations implementing geospatial information technologies. It provides insights to the technologies the GITA members are using as well as applications they are implementing.

    It discusses land-base maintenance and accuracy issues, sophistication of facility conversion, and the integration of applications with geo- spatial technology.

    Application Integration for Improved Utility Operations. System managers have a wealth of real-time and historical data about the process being monitored and controlled.

    More often than not, the stored information is never retrieved. Many utilities are asking how information collected by control systems can be productively used. Managers, engineers, maintenance. This paper considers methods for implementing integration.

    Park, and D. Utility Mapping and Record Keeping for Infrastructure. Thorough discussions and evaluations with company staff and outside consultants are necessary to develop an overall technical approach designed to assist in developing this computerized mapping system.

    The information discussed is useful in the project development. This paper describes how the fast-growing City of Seattle, Washington, is using GIS technology in many departments, including water and electric.

    First, a common land database was formed, which contained land-specific data common for many city departments; at the same time, water and electric database and map development were under way.

    Planning and development activities of GIS in relation to the water department are discussed in some detail; an appendix gives the process in the form of a flow chart. Nine lessons learned are summarized. The center covers acres, and modifications to the underground utility sys- tem are frequent. Many of the system drawings have been revised more than 30 times, rendering them difficult to read.

    A mapping system developed at the University of Akron, Ohio, was used to convert the drawings to a computerized mapping system. The paper details how the system was con- verted and describes the final results. In addition to basic maps, custom color plots will be available at any scale, of any area, in a range of colors, and of any combination of the 85 designated layers.

    Future enhancements include additional layers and programming to allow the maps to be updated without use of a pencil or by manually digitizing survey data. Add-on programs have been used for analysis on the water system and will be used for analysis of three sewer systems. Rogers, N. Higher frequency GPR is required for detection of small util- ities, but this greatly limits the depth of signal penetration.

    Wide signal bandwidth is required to balance resolution and penetration results. Mapping of soil electromagnetic proper- ties over large geographical areas is difficult and requires a vast number of measurements to achieve even the most basic geospatial resolution.

    Tanaka, S. Baba, and Y. A new conduit position measurement technology eliminates the necessity of aboveground measurement and can accu- rately and efficiently obtain conduit route data with absolute coordinates. This technology runs a gyroscope inside a con- duit to measure the conduit route and uses GPS technology to establish absolute coordinates for manhole and conduit positions.

    Reports on Radio Frequency Identification. IT and Construction Process, No. The final report will give a brief introduction to radio frequency identification RFID tagging and wireless technologies and will highlight the business benefits they can offer to the construction industry.

    Mapping Four Billion Buried Assets. Engi- neering Surveying Showcase, Oct. Mapping the Underworld is a four- year program aiming to develop technologies to help locate buried infrastructure.

    It brings together the ordnance survey, utilities, contractors, and technology companies. Meng, A. Taha, and J. Shaping the Change, Munich, Germany, Oct. The research looking at the feasibility of producing a mam- moth subterranean map of the U. Proactive Utilities Management: Subsurface utility engineering SUE is the branch of engi- neering that specializes in utility identification, location, and advising. An organizational tool for SUE is conflict analysis.

    Conflict analysis provides a greater sense of coordination by working with utility companies, designers, transportation departments, and contractors and employing a powerful new data management tool, the conflict matrix.

    SUE and conflict analysis form the link of proactive utilities management that efficiently reduces needless utility relocations, minimizes utility complications, and diminishes overall cost.

    GPR systems are commonly available to assist with non- destructive testing of pipeline and sewer system utilities. Sev- eral additional geophysical techniques have been extensively tested in Brisbane to complement CCTV and radar data. Encouraging results have been obtained with transmission electron miscroscopy TEM resistivity data to provide an indication of structural integrity in terms of variations in sub- strate resistivity.

    High-definition seismic systems are required to provide more detail on the nature of the target, and new research programs have been developed for this purpose. The paper reviews the experimental work carried out by MEB on the practical usage of three-dimensional mapping.

    Evidence is provided to show how the technique has provedto be an effective preplanning tool that has significantly reduced cable installation costs and increased the use of trenchless technology. Utility Base Map for Rotterdam. The utility base map UBP is a special map that shows the exact X, Y location of all utilities in the entire city. More information about the depth of existing utilities could be needed when using trenchless technology.

    This document is a case study of utility mapping. New York City has over 6, miles of sewers recorded on some 60, drawings of varying size, scale, and level of detail. Sewer maps were entered on a CADD system and a sewer database. Digital Mapping for Watermains in Torbay. The development of a digital mapping and database system for water supply and distribution is described.

    The proce- dures adopted in producing the user requirement specifica- tion and preparing the existing records for conversion to digital form are outlined, and the manual digitization meth- ods used for data conversion are detailed. Articles [] Clarke, I. A questionnaire was designed to give an indication of the changing face of the ground investigation and utility map- ping market worldwide. The questionnaire was circulated to various survey systems manufacturers and contactors.

    Mapping technology is becoming increasingly important for utility installers. This article provides an overview of utility mapping and tracing in the U. A Graphic Information System for Utilities. This paper discusses how the department manages the net- work it has developed now extends to some 1, miles and. Seeing is Believing: Safely Exposing Buried Util- ities. VHS, Knowing the colors and meaning of utility markers is only part of the answer to safe, damage-free digging.

    Exposing buried utilities in a safe, efficient way is critical. This video covers one-call requirements, vacuum systems, damage response, open trenches, and hand digging. Reports [] Sinha, S. Thomas, M. Wang, and Y. Subsurface Utility Engineering Manual. Like many state departments of transportation, PennDOT is decentralized. The districts in Pennsylvania have consid- erable autonomy over the use of SUE design, construction, procurement, and other issues.

    Project- and site-specific procedures are needed that can be used by the central office to encourage all districts to make wider use of SUE as a means of conveying the details of damage-prevention best practices so SUE can be used effectively. The objective of this project is to develop a SUE manual for PennDOT to assist department and consultant designers, utility relocation administrators, and others in identifying the appropriate levels of investigation needed to locate and designate underground utilities.

    Infrastructure Planning Handbook. The book features global case studies and numerous research resources, and it covers major infrastructure projects in con- text, master planning, infrastructure project performance,prioritization of projects and services, project finances and economics, environmental and social impacts, uncertainty and risk, and research for planning and analysis. One chapter describes best practices in utility mapping related to highway projects. Guidelines on how to address relocation of utilities during highway projects are also given.

    Jeong, D. Abraham, S. The utility accommodation policy UAP is a collection of the regulations and practices to control the utility occu- pancy of all public highway rights-of-way under jurisdic- tion of the different states. UAPs not only help to regulate the installation of new utilities and the renovation of currently installed utilities by construction companies, subcontractors, and utilities companies, but also provide a framework to develop and preserve a safe roadside and to minimize possible interferences and impairment to the highway, its structures, appearance, safe operation, con- struction, and maintenance.

    The current utility accommo- dation policy of the State of Indiana was adopted on September 10, It was revised on March 26, , to include the placement of telecommunication towers within highway right-of-way of partial or full-access control. The advances in construction technologies such as trenchless technology and subsurface utility engineering, as well as the demands for new types of utilities, and issues related to right of way, permits, appurtenances, emergency responses, and so forth were analyzed.

    Chapter Utilities Permits. In Encroachment Permits Manual, 7th ed. This chapter addresses the initial placement, adjustment, relocation, and replacement of utility facilities in all state highways.

    Class Location Criteria for Gas Pipelines. Current standards and regulations for gas transmission pipelines classify pipeline corridors into location classes and specify design factors accordingly. The primary objective of this project was to examine the current class location system and develop supplementary criteria that would enhance.

    Burtwell, and J. A summary of the findings of an international review of the policies and construction practices adopted for street works is provided in the report. The requirement and use of trenchless methods for utility street works varies according to, for example, the geographical and geological setting, but the most important factor was the existing pol- icy and legislation defining the rights of the utilities and the public.

    Many communities have established and successfully used location guidelines for utilities in their streets. General Accounting Office. GAO, June , 39 pp. Delays in highway and bridge projects caused by relocating of utilities and facilities were examined. The following were looked at: Trenchless Installation of Conduits Beneath Roadways.

    This TRB report describes the trenchless installation tech- nologies methods, materials, and equipment currently employed by state DOTs and other agencies to install con- duits beneath roadways. New communications networks are being built both in the public and private sector.

    There is interest in public-private arrangements where each party taps the special resources of the other. The private partner gains access to public ROW and the public partner gains access to some form of com- pensation: These guidelines identify key elements involved in the implementation of shared resource projects.

    It is designed as an overview of steps and activities that are typically involved in the process. The guidance is descrip- tive rather than prescriptive. Excavation in the Right-of-Way. This publication reviews the need for coordinating and reg- ulating activities within the public ROW and recommended guidelines for establishing the need implementation mech- anisms with sample ordinances.

    It reviews the issues involved and includes examples of North American prac- tices to improve coordination efforts. The AASHTO guidelines in this publication help to develop and preserve safe highway operations and roadsides by 1 minimizing possible interference and impairment to the highway and its structures, 2 providing good appearance, and 3 minimizing maintenance.

    Invisible Networks: Krieger Publishing Company, Malabar, Fla. This is a useful reference for people involved or interested in urban history or the technological infrastructure on which American cities are built. Section 80 requires that a utility carrying out works in the street, where another utility has been discovered, must make and keep a record of the location and nature of that utility and inform the street authority of the discovery.

    Department of Transportation. DOT, Washington, D. The process should assist in formulating deci- sions regarding the type of work zone lane closure, detour, crossover, etc.

    This manual has been prepared as a guide to local govern- mental agencies, other regulating agencies, utilities, con- sultants, and the public. The manual describes current practice and recommendations for improved practices. Feasibility of Util- ity Tunnels in Urban Areas. This report is a comprehensive examination of the techni- cal, legal, and economic aspects of placing urban utilities in tunnel structures.

    Ford, T. Taylor, S. Kranc, and E. Construction Specification Framework for Utility Instal- lations. Summarized is the work completed to develop a prototype framework of construction specification requirements for utility installations, with a focus on water, sanitary sewer, and communication specifications.

    It includes five groups of specifications: The framework uses tables that summarize the main characteristics of pro- posed new or modified standard specifications and includes a listing of pay items, subsidiary items, and corresponding measurement units. The framework also includes specifica- tion requirements. Integrated Utility Planning: Combining Greenways and Utility Corridors. Utility corridors traditionally have been engineered for the purpose of accommodating sewer, water, and other utility lines and providing access for their maintenance.

    This paper illustrates the subtle complexities introduced when a green- way is designed and constructed in conjunction with a utility project. Keys to Successful Utility Coordination. Utility crossings projects may encounter crossings with electrical, fiber optic, natural gas, and a host of other utili- ties. When poorly identified, each utility crossing poses a liability to engineers and a threat to the safety of contrac- tors. Although this thesis is well established by case history, steps may be taken to avoid new utility-related construction disasters.

    This paper discusses the impact of underground infrastruc- ture on the quality and livability of cities, how the under- ground utility network develops as a city grows, and the importance of planning the use of underground space beneath public rights of way.

    Social Implications of Infrastructure Network Interactions. Urbanized and soon-to-be urbanizing areas are increasingly dependent upon infrastructure transmission and distribu- tion networks for the provision of essential public resources and services for transportation, energy, communications, water supply, and wastewater collection and treatment.

    In large part, the increasing spread of population settlements at the periphery of cities and the increasing density and vertical integration of urban cores have increased reliance upon the connectivity that these networks provide. These infrastruc- ture networks are, in turn, dependent upon one another, both functionally and spatially, in very complex ways, and that interdependence is increased as new capacity-enhancing infrastructure technologies are developed. The extent of these dependencies appears to be escalating, and it results in interactions among the systems and produces effects upon environments that are difficult to predict.

    Although issues surrounding property rights for under- ground space are of general interest to this paper, the prin- cipal issue of concern is whether underground space beneath public right-of-way has its own intrinsic value which should be taken into account in decisions about how such space should be used for the public good.

    Indirect Costs of Utility Construction and Repair. This paper examines the indirect and social costs of utility work beneath public streets and highways.

    Issues examined include traffic congestions, environmental impacts, road pavement damage, and the effective use of the space beneath public rights-of-way.

    The report examines policy issues related to the placement of utilities beneath public rights-of-way. The principal issues discussed are recognition of the present and future value of the space beneath public rights-of-way in space allocation decisions, methodologies for assessing the full societal costs of utility work in congested roadways, imple- mentation of contractual practices and fee structures to mitigate conditions involving high societal costs, and the work that would be necessary to attempt to include the impact of utility cuts on life-cycle pavements costs.

    Integration and Plan- ning of the Infrastructure: The Policy Pursued by Rotter- dam. The coordination and integration of activities related to road surfacing and underground infrastructures is generally a complicated process in urban areas where there are a large number of participants, each responsible for the installation and maintenance of his own facility.

    This paper discusses in more detail the measures in Rotterdam, Netherlands, for good coordination and integration. Market Issues Related to Utility Technologies These references provide information on the extent of the underground utility network, demand for locating services, and costs of damage and delays.

    Reports [] Transportation Research Board. TRB, Washing- ton, D. The report explores strategies, tools, and techniques to bet- ter estimate, contain, and manage capital costs of federallyfunded public transportation projects based, in part, on the experience of the case study projects.

    The program identified a group of projects that looked at how work could be improved just by making better use of current technology. One project was identified to develop a better understanding of what street works cost the utility industry and what they cost society in general. This report details the results from that project. It reviews literature on the subject and endeavors to estimate both the direct cost of street works to utilities and the costs of street works to society.

    It identifies the ways in which these costs can be minimized, as well as gaps in knowledge requiring further research. Electric- ity Undergrounding in New South Wales. Costs, benefits, and funding of undergrounding electric cables in Australia are reviewed. National Trans- mission Grid Study.

    May , pp. This report is a study of benefits of establishing a national electricity transmission grid and to identify transmission bottlenecks and measures to address them. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Pipeline Mapping. OPS, Sept. The objective of the workgroup was to illustrate, test, and refine the OPS cost-benefit framework, and pipeline mapping was chosen for analysis because extensive. Federal Highway Admin- istration, Dec.

    Employing SUE can reduce costs and delays on highway projects. This study provided independent review and study of these cost savings. Digging up the Roads. This document is referenced in bibliography entry 62, Far- rimond Managing Utility Cuts. APWA, , 68 pp. The report examined procedures and selected case studies of utility cut excavations and restorations. It concluded that none of the reviewed studies offers a standard specification for restoring cuts or a universal method for addressing the cost of lost pavement life.

    Utility locating procedures and equipment were reviewed on three pages. Assessment of the Cost of Underground Util- ity Damages. Conditions and Performance. Report to U. Congress, Jan. Detailed information on system characteristics, finance, and trends in condition and performance is provided.

    Managing Util- ity Cuts: Issues and Considerations. The research project presented here was developed in response to the need of improving the long-term perfor- mance of restored utility cuts by identifying and resolving technical difficulties involved in the restoration process.

    Articles [] Griffin, J. Complex Crossbore Issue. Underground Con- struction, April , pp. Described are recent significant developments related to the issue of who should be responsible for locating and marking laterals. Two industry associations have released position statements supporting legislation requiring loca- tion and marking of sewer laterals Distribution Contrac- tors Association and National Utility Contractors Association.

    Many contractors and others in the industry are increasingly active and vocal about the seriousness of the issue. Mayday Wednesday, May 23, , represents a major demographic shift, according to scientists from North Carolina State University and the University of Georgia.

    The sustainable water infrastructure management system SWIMS investigates how an innovative evaluation sys- tem, renewal engineering, and visualization system can be integrated for efficient water and wastewater pipeline management.

    Damage Prevention References in this section provide information on damage prevention, procedures for one-call services, hand dig require- ments, and so forth. Working Together: This guide shares good practice for coordinating and man- aging works on the street. It gives examples of how promot- ers can carry out works with the least disruption to highway users, frontages, and local communities to improve and maintain the road network.

    Volume II, Dec. Stakeholders throughout the U. CGA collected and summa- rized the data and published this report to facilitate improvements in safety and damage prevention efforts. Effectiveness of Prevention Meth- ods for Excavation Damage. A new fault tree model was developed that estimates hit fre- quency due to third-party excavation based on pipeline condition and prevention practices.

    In addition to the eval- uation of prevention effectiveness, this model can be used to facilitate the selection of the most cost-effective preven- tion methods and to evaluate risk and reliability of existing or new pipelines.

    Transmission pipelines are occasionally subjected to large impact forces from third-party excavating equipment. A system that can detect the resulting contact and quickly alert the pipeline operator would be developed.

    Department of Transportation, Office of Pipeline Safety. Common Ground: Best practices in preventing damage to underground utili- ties were identified and validated. Separate chapters cover one-call centers, locating and marking, and mapping. Facanha, C. Major plans for development of more effi- cient movement of cargo and environmental safety are being developed by Southern California Association of Govern- ments SCAG and other agencies.

    SCAG also developed technological and operational strategies and environmental programs for future improvement in truck emissions. This report also contains truck strategies that are evaluated and analyzed. Two operational strategies are also mentioned in this report, a virtual container jar and expanded incident management. Strategies discussed in this report are evalu- ated both in terms of emission reduction potential and cost effectiveness. Federal Highway Administration. Financing Freight Improvements.

    Department of Transportation. Wash- ington, D. This report provides 51 case studies of financing strategies used for different types of freight-related projects. They are categorized by state. Many case studies mentioned in this report could be categorized as low-cost improvements. Shafran, I. Financing and Improving Land Access to U. Intermodal Cargo Hubs. The report then identifies the best practices for financing options. Sev- eral of the projects may qualify as low-cost operational and capital improvements.

    Rail Bryan, J. Weisbrod, and C. This paper provides a summary for NCHRP Project , which examined the feasibility and value of rail freight solu- tions as a means of reducing highway congestion. Some rail freight strategies for mitigating traffic congestion growth were defined and consist of rail freight enhancements and promo- tion of greater use of rail. This paper also provides case stud- ies for various rail projects.

    All of the projects described were captured by four categories: This report also discusses the economic and insti- tutional factors affecting feasibility of diverting some truck freight to rail. Sun, Y. Turnquist, and L. This report describes enhancements to an existing model of freight system capacity. The three enhancements expounded upon are i allowing future traffic patterns to be uncertain, ii replacing the simple facility capacity constraints by volume- delay curves and a service quality constraint, and iii replacing the predefined paths by traffic assignment logic so that link and path volumes are determined in the optimization without requiring path enumeration.

    This will provide improved estimates of capacity and capacity flexibility. Dirnberger, J. Improved sorting processes and increased pull-down performance has potential to increase capacity without major capital, equipment or labor expense. Dirnberger describes the development of a quality of sort met- ric to reduce the occurrence of dirty tracks and measure adherence to a static track allocation plan if one is in place to help better manage interaction between the hump and the pull-down processes.

    This paper presents the Lean Railroading approach and discussed the bottleneck management compo- nent. Increasing pull-down capacity will help enable railroads to swap the time buffer for a capacity buffer. This will reduce dwell time leading to improved service reliability and network efficiency. Lai, Y. Ouyang, C. Barkan, and H. This paper first develops a static model to optimize load placement on a sequence of intermodal trains that have sched- uled departure times. This model applies when full informa- tion on all trains and loads is available.

    The purpose of this paper is to extend a loading model to optimize the aerody- namic efficiency at the multiple train system level. This paper also describes the development of a rolling horizon scheme for continuous terminal operations. They use a rolling horizon scheme to balance the advantage from optimizing multiple trains together, and the risk of making suboptimal decisions due to incomplete future information. An empirical case study is also included showing significant aerodynamic efficiency benefits from these opti- mization models.

    Attempting to optimize the loading of too many trains in this environment will reduce the ability to achieve the most efficient loading configuration because of imperfect information. Armstrong, J. The Railroad: Simmons-Boardman Books, Inc. This book presents factual information on the basic tech- nologies used by railroads and the operational functions they perform. A brief chapter is dedicated to each main topic, for example: Many care- fully drawn and helpful illustrations supplement the text.

    Association of American Railroads. Railroad Facts. The statistics are provided for the industry as a whole usually for Class I railroads only , and for B Some key information is shown in graphical form, while other items are presented as histori- cal series in tables. Burns, J. Westport, CT. Burns has written a useful and generally accurate history of railroad merger activity in the Twentieth Century and in his conclusions has attempted to put rail mergers in the larger con- text of business combinations and globalization at the turn of the 21st Century.

    The book has a good index and an excellent bibliography. This report, undertaken at the request of the National Sur- face Transportation Policy and Revenue Study Commission, examined long-term capacity expansion needs for the railroad industry. By projecting both likely capacity expansion invest- ments and anticipated traffic growth on maps of the U.

    Conant, M. Financial Analysis and Regula- tory Critique. Elsevier, Oxford, UK. In an introductory chapter, Conant makes a general case that economic regulation has led to resource misallocation, and he describes what has been accomplished in the way of reform. Two chapters address the Rock Island and Milwaukee bankruptcies, which have received little scholarly attention. DeBoer, D. This book covers the major modes of transport: Kaufman is a jour- nalist of long standing in the industry, and DeBoer is a former Federal civil servant and industry practitioner best known in the intermodal truck-rail industry.

    Each chapter provides an historical synopsis and current profile, while the final chapter addresses the challenges of future capacity constraints and solutions. Friedlaender, A. The Dilemma of Freight Transport Regu- lation. The Brookings Institution, Washington, D.

    Gallamore, R. A Handbook in Honor of John R. Brookings Institu- tion Press, Washington, D. Healy, K. Performance of the U. A Quarter Century of Private Operation. This book is really two volumes in one: The remainder of the book details growth of the railroads by internal economic growth and acquisition since World War II. This material describes the setting and performance of a half century of railroad mergers.

    Kahn, A. The Economics of Regulation: It is perhaps the most comprehensive treatment of the eco- nomics of regulation and the institutions which grew up around it. Volume I covers the principles developed in clas- sical public utility regulatory theory. It treats in depth issues of marginal cost pricing short run and long run , price dis- crimination, economies of scale, and rate making under competition.

    In addition to railroad reg- ulation, Kahn deals with natural gas transmission, trucking, and telecommunications regulatory issues. Keeler, T. Railroads, Freight, and Public Policy. Brook- ings Institute, Washington, D. This book was written just after the awful decade of the s, but before the Staggers Rail Act reforms had made their impact on railroad fortunes. The book gives an excellent dis- cussion of economic fundamentals within the regulatory par- adigm, and anticipates many of the post-Staggers policy issues such as Ramsey or inverse elasticity differential pricing.

    Klein, M. Unfinished Business: He profiles both Jay Gould to most, a villain and Edward H. Harriman to almost every- one but Theodore Roosevelt, James J. Hill, and J. Morgan, a hero. Klein provides a brief case study of the most impor- tant technology accomplishment for railroads in midth century America, dieselization. He also briefly addresses the streamliner era and prospects for high-speed passenger corridors.

    Martin, A. Enterprise Denied: This is one of the finest books available treating the history of railroads in the modern era. Meyer, J. Merton, J. Stenason, and C. The work was among the first if not the first to describe long-run multi- variate statistical cost functions, and to develop statistical regressions for transport costing.

    Middleton, W. Smerk, and R. Encyclopedia of North American Railroads. University Press, Blooming- ton, IN. Five overview essays set the stage: Keith Bryant on development of the industry, H.

    Roger Grant on its social history, John H. White Jr. Then the Encyclope- dia starts in with Accidents and plows on through to a biogra- phical sketch of Robert R. Appen- dix B has railroad carrier and regional maps.

    It is a good list but incomplete and uneven in coverage. Saunders, R. Main Lines: Main Lines is the third of three books by Richard Saunders dealing with railroads in the 20th Century.

    The third volume is Main Lines, which completes the story to the end of the century. Touran, and Golder Associates. Federal Transit Administration, U. Depart- ment of Transportation, Accessed Aug. This report describes procedures for performing risk analysis, which consists of two parts: Piekarski, J. Simplified Risk Analysis in Project Economics.

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the use of a simplified method of incorporating risk analysis in project economics to bridge the technology gap and bring the decision maker in direct contact with the critical uncertainties of the project. This paper is meant to present another tool that can be used, not replace the computer model. Ramgopal, M. Project Uncertainty Management. This article argues that all current project risk management processes induce a restricted focus on the management of project uncertainty because the term risk encourages a threat perspective.

    The article dis- cusses the reasons for this view and argues that a focus on uncertainty rather than risk could enhance project risk management, in terms of designing desirable futures and planning how to achieve them. Regan, S. Risk Management Implementation and Analysis. The author of this paper defines the term risk and provides a guideline for developing a risk management program capable of being imple- mented and analyzed on any type of project.

    Ripley, P. Who Owns and Manages It? The author defines contingency and discusses the various ways in which different project players use reserve funds. This article provides 50 definitions of terms related to the subject of risk management. Many of the terms included deal with probability and statistics or are particular to project risk management.

    Roberds, W. This paper presents an innovative, practical, and cost-effective approach to problem solving by a quantifying actual project cost and schedule uncertainty within a probabilistic, risk-based, integrated cost and schedule model, in which the uncertainties in inputs are explicitly assessed including de-biasing, through elicitation of technical experts and incorporated; b identifying and prioritizing critical cost and schedule risks and opportunities, as well as quantifying the benefits of proposed mitigation strategies to address those critical risks and oppor- tunities; and c improving owner and project team understanding and communication.

    While it is not yet possible to fully validate this new approach, this paper presents an initial evaluation, and discusses chal- lenges related to better implementation. Robert, J. Allocating Construction Risks: Guidelines for Improving Practice: This paper describes how design professionals and owners could ben- efit from taking a more global view of risk. The author describes how this could benefit everyone involved and improve the current state of risk assessment. Rothwell, G. This article compares project stages, accuracy ranges, and cost contin- gencies recommended by the Association for the Advancement of Cost Engineering International and the Electric Power Research Insti- tute.

    It shows that current guidelines are consistent with contingen- cies equal to the standard deviation of the cost estimate. It suggests how this standard deviation can be derived from a confidence level e. Rowe, J. The author of this article presents a forward-looking cost contingency tracking system that uses readily available cost information and a sim- ple spreadsheet format. Using the contingency tracking system, project managers can assign contingency to construction contracts, track its consumption, and manage a reserve for upcoming work.

    This article discusses the development of rules, using the perceived risk of each con- struction contract, to assign an initial contingency value to each con- struction contract. Shafer, S. Estimate and Project Risk Analysis Approaches. This paper discusses the different methods that can be used to identify risk and with that set contingency.

    It tells which method to use based on the individual characteristic of the project at hand. This paper introduces a definition of risk based on cost engineering standards and not the mathematical approach.

    Smith, G. Monte Carlo Simulation: This paper describes how a Monte Carlo simulation can and should be used. It describes how the simulation will handle the uncertainty and produce the best estimate from the given data.

    Smith, K. This paper outlines a stronger technique for preparing realistic cost esti- mates for major capital investments by using probability techniques. These probability concepts for project evaluation are then compared with traditional approaches. Smith, R. This report examines the ability to divide up the risk of a project so as not to affect any one party more than another.

    This can be done if the risk is properly handled and assigned to the appropriate member of the construction team. Sonmez, R. Ergin, and M.

    This paper presents a quantitative methodology to determine financial impacts of risk factors during the bidding stages of international con- struction projects. Project and country data for 26 construction proj- ects from 21 countries were collected for evaluation of the international risk factors.

    The factors affecting cost contingency were identified using correlation and regression analysis technique. Stevenson, J. Determining Meaningful Estimate Contingency.

    This article describes the problems that a power plant company went through to establish a program for setting contingency on the retrofit- ting operations of many of their power plants. It describes their goals for the project and how they went about attaining them.

    Stukhart, G. Sharing the Risks of the Cost of Inflation. This paper discusses the risk of inflation over the period of a construc- tion project. It discusses how and to whom the effect of inflation should be dispersed.

    It also talks about how the contract can help divide some of these costs for the contractor. Touran, A. Probabilistic Model for Cost Contingency. This paper proposes a probabilistic model for the calculation of project cost contingency by considering the expected number of changes and the average cost of change.

    The model assumes a Poisson arrival pattern for change orders and independent random variables. The probability of cost overrun for a given contingency level is calculated. Department of Energy. Order DOE O This document provides program and project management direction for the acquisition of capital assets that are delivered on schedule,.

    Project Management Practices, Risk Management. This document is designed to provide acquisition professionals and program and project management offices with a reference for dealing with system acquisition risks. It is intended to be useful as an aid in classroom instruction and as a reference for practical applications.

    Department of Transportation. Risk Assessment Methodologies and Procedures. Prepared by Parsons, San Francisco, Calif. The report explains in detail the rationale for risk analysis of public transit capital projects.

    This site was used to conduct research and contains many valuable links and much useful information. Wright, P. Cost Estimating: Dealing with Uncer- tainty. This paper discusses the problem of cost estimating and how to deal with other types of markets.

    It goes into detail about how to use a prob- abilistic method for construction cost estimates when dealing with other economic market uncertainties. It also describes how to forecast future competitive activity in other economic markets. Yeung, D. Cheung, K. Cheung, and H. One of the key functions of a project cost monitoring system is as a detector of potential risks and hazards in cost management, or as a warning sign to the client and professionals that the preset cost budget is overrun and requires immediate corrective action.

    Zeanah, P. Advanced Techniques for Contingency Evaluation. It explains how to use these techniques when using objec- tive data. The following papers relevant to risk management of rapid renewal projects were presented: Powell, North Carolina Department of Transportation. Schneider, FHWA. Peterson, Utah Department of Transporta- tion, and M.

    Gransberg, University of Oklahoma. Damnjanovic, Texas Transportation Institute. Primer on Contracting: Accessed Oct. Pakkala, P. Innovative Project Delivery Methods for Infrastructure: An International Perspective.

    Finnish Road Enterprise, Helsinki, Fin- land, Texas Department of Information Resources. Agency Contact List The following is a list of contact information for agencies whose representatives participated in interviews or who were invited to attend a pilot workshop. Paul Street St. Renewal Project R09 also produced a PowerPoint presentation on risk management planning. This software is offered as is, without warranty or promise of support of any kind either expressed or implied. Under no circumstance will the National Academy of Sciences or the Transportation Research Board collectively "TRB" be liable for any loss or damage caused by the installation or operation of this product.

    TRB makes no representation or warranty of any kind, expressed or implied, in fact or in law, including without limitation, the warranty of merchantability or the warranty of fitness for a particular purpose, and shall not in any case be liable for any consequential or special damages. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

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    TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH: (Abstracts were excerpted from referenced article or were written by Philip Garvey.) Bentzen, B.L. (In Progress).Accessible. An annotated bibliography is one in which you include a short summary or abstract of sources placed in an appendix at the end of your paper. However, this. This annotated bibliography lists all documents that are referenced in the Action Plan and other useful resources. It is organized by section corresponding to the.

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    TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH: (Abstracts were excerpted from referenced article or were written by Philip Garvey.) Bentzen, B.L. (In Progress).Accessible.

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